Adhiṭṭhāna; Adhiṭṭhāti


adhiṭṭhāna: obstinate adherence

adhiṭṭhāna: resolve

adhiṭṭhāti: to doggedly assume

adhiṭṭhāti: to concentrate

adhiṭṭhāti: to organise

adhiṭṭhāti: to formally determine

adhiṭṭhāti: to resolve on

anadhiṭṭhāti: to firmly reject

svādhiṭṭhitaṃ adhiṭṭhāti: to properly concentrate

adhiṭṭhita: firmly established

adhiṭṭhita: committed

adhiṭṭhita: controlled


Dictionaries: concurrence

The Pāli dictionaries broadly concur with the renderings given here, though DOP says ’fixes the mind on’ and ‘supervise’ and ‘not undertaken’ where we prefer ‘concentrate’ and ‘organise’ and ‘firmly reject.’

On ignoring the dictionaries

In translation, dictionary renderings are mostly ignored. For example,

1) Horner says bhikkhus were ‘looking after’ repairs where we would say ‘organising’ (Vin.2.159).

2) Bodhi says a shopkeeper ‘diligently applies’ himself to his work where we would say he ‘carefully concentrates’ (sakkaccaṃ kammantaṃ adiṭṭhāti) on it.

3) Norman often rejects the usual translations for the word. We accept his ‘established’ at Th.v.768, a rendering not noted in the dictionaries.


Illustration: adhiṭṭhānā, obstinate adherence

And what Ānanda, is the perception of disgust for the whole world [of phenomena]?
sabbaloke anabhiratasaññā

In this regard, Ānanda, for whatever in the world [of phenomena] there is clinging, grasping, obstinate adherence, stubborn attachment, and identification,a bhikkhu abides abandoning, not grasping.
bhikkhu ye loke upayupādānā cetaso adhiṭṭhānābhinivesānusayā te pajahanto viharati na upādiyanto (A.5.111).

Illustration: adhiṭṭhānā, resolve

For a khattiya (khattiyā), gaining power is his resolve (balādhiṭṭhānā).

For a brahman,learning the sacred texts is his resolve (mantādhiṭṭhānā).

For a householder, gaining a craft is his resolve (sippādhiṭṭhānā).

For a woman, having a son is her resolve (puttādhiṭṭhānā).

For a thief, gaining a caravan is his resolve (saṭhādhiṭṭhānā).

For an ascetic (samaṇā) maintaining virtue is his resolve (sīlādhiṭṭhānā) (A.3.363).

Illustration: anadhiṭṭhānā, firmly reject

Some ascetic or Brahmanist may… in every way firmly reject the ties to individual existence in the sensuous plane of existence
sabbaso kāmasaṃyojanānaṃ anadhiṭṭhānā (M.2.237).

Illustration: adhiṭṭhāti, doggedly assume

He clings to bodily form, grasps it, and doggedly assumes that bodily form is “my [absolute] Selfhood.”
so rūpaṃ upeti upādiyati adhiṭṭhāti attā me ti (S.3.114).

Illustration: adhiṭṭhātabbā, concentrate

When resentment has arisen for someone (āghāto jāyetha), one can concentrate on the ownership of karmically consequential conduct by that person
kammassakatā tasmiṃ puggale adhiṭṭhātabbā

‘This Venerable is owner of his karmically consequential conduct, inheritor of it, born of it, intimately related to it, has it as his refuge. He is the inheritor of whatever karmically consequential conduct he undertakes whether meritorious or demeritorious’
kammassako ayamāyasmā kammadāyādo… tassa dāyādo bhavissatī ti).

This is how resentment for that person can be dispelled
evaṃ tasmiṃ puggale āghāto paṭivinetabbo) (A.3.185).

Illustration: adhiṭṭhāti, concentrate

In this regard a bhikkhu possesses faith [in the perfection of the Perfect One’s enlightenment], virtue, learning, generosity, and wisdom. He thinks, ‘Oh, that at the demise of the body at death, I might be reborn in the company of wealthy khattiyas.’ He fixes his mind on that idea, concentrates on it, and develops it
so taṃ cittaṃ dahati taṃ cittaṃ adhiṭṭhāti taṃ cittaṃ bhāveti).

These aspirations and musings of his, when developed and cultivated, lead to his rebirth there (M.3.99).

Illustration: svādhiṭṭhitaṃ adhiṭṭhehi, properly concentrate

Out of tender concern the Teacher gave me a [clean] foot-cloth, [saying]: ‘Properly concentrate on this pure thing somewhere quiet.’
Anukampāya me satthā pādāsi pādapuñchaniṃ
Etaṃ suddhaṃ adhiṭṭhehi ekamantaṃ svadhiṭṭhitaṃ


Commentary: manasikārena svadhiṭṭhitaṃ katvā.

Rhys Davids: ‘Fix thou thy mind on this clean thing, the while/Well concentrated thou dost sit apart.

Illustration: svādhiṭṭhitaṃ adhiṭṭhāti, properly concentrate

Suppose a foolish mountain cow―foolish, incompetent, unknowledgeable about roaming mountains, improficient―were to think, ‘How about if I ate grass I have never eaten before and drank water I have never drunk before?’ She would lift her hind hoof without having firmly placed her front hoof and thus would not go where she had never gone before. And neither would she safely return to where she had come from.

In the same way, a bhikkhu―foolish, incompetent, unknowledgeable about first jhāna, improficient―enters first jhāna but does not stick with that [successful] meditation object (so taṃ nimittaṃ na āsevati), does not develop it (na bhāveti), cultivate it (na bahulīkaroti), or properly concentrate on it (na svādhiṭṭhitaṃ adhiṭṭhāti). The thought occurs to him, ‘How about if I entered second jhāna?’ He is not able to so. And when he tries to re-enter first jhāna he is not able to do that either. This is called a bhikkhu who has slipped and fallen from both sides, like the foolish mountain cow (A.4.418).

Illustration: adhiṭṭheyyāsi, concentrate

If the torpor is unabandoned, then focus on the mental image of light (ālokasaññaṃ manasikareyyāsi), concentrate on the mental image of day (divāsaññaṃ adhiṭṭheyyāsi). As by day, so at night; as at night, so by day (yathā divā tathā rattiṃ yathā rattiṃ tathā divā).

If the torpor is unabandoned, then perceiving the constant nature of reality (pacchāpuresaññī), concentrate on pacing back and forth (caṅkamaṃ adhiṭṭheyyāsi), your senses inwardly immersed (antogatehi indriyehi), your mind not straying outwards (abahigatena mānasena) (A.4.86).

Illustration: adiṭṭhāti, concentrate

Possessed of three factors a shopkeeper is unable to either gain or develop wealth. What three? Neither in the morning, afternoon, or evening does he carefully concentrate on his business
na sakkaccaṃ kammantaṃ adiṭṭhāti

Likewise, possessed of three factors a bhikkhu is incapable of either gaining an unattained spiritually wholesome factor, or developing an attained spiritually wholesome factor. Which three? Neither in the morning, afternoon, or evening does he carefully concentrate on an object of meditation
na sakkaccaṃ samādhinimittaṃ adhiṭṭhāti (A.1.115).

Illustration: adhiṭṭheyya, concentrate on

The Mettā Sutta says an arahant would have an unlimited attitude to all beings (sabbabhūtesū mānasaṃ bhāvaye aparimānaṃ) and that as long as he was free of torpor (yāvatassa vigatamiddho) he would concentrate on this [practice] mindfully (etaṃ satiṃ adhiṭṭheyya) (Sn.v.151).

Illustration: adhiṭṭhenti, organise

Those bhikkhus who organised the building work
yepi bhikkhū navakammaṃ adhiṭṭhenti (Vin.2.159).

Illustration: adhiṭṭhāti, organise

When a bhikkhu is having a hut built for himself by a benefactor, then standing where there are no crops (appaharite ṭhitena), he should organise the use of a method that involves two or three layers of facing material (dvatticchadanassa pariyāyaṃ adhiṭṭhātabbanti) around the door. Should he organise the use of more than that, even if standing where there are no crops (tato ce uttariṃ appaharite pi ṭhito adhiṭṭhaheyya), it is an offence of pācittiya.

If he organises (the work) standing where there are crops it is a dukkaṭa offence (sace harite ṭhito adhiṭṭhāti āpatti dukkaṭassa) (Vin.4.47-8).

Illustration: adhiṭṭhāyā, organise

It is an offence for a bhikkhu to commit an act of murder either by doing it himself or by organising someone else to do it, which is defined as:

• ‘by organising’ means: while organising he orders “Hit thus. Strike thus. Kill thus”’
Adhiṭṭhāyā ti adhiṭṭhahitvā āṇāpeti evaṃ vijjha evaṃ pahara evaṃ ghātehī ti (Vin.3.74).

Illustration: adhiṭṭhātuṃ, formally determine [as personal possessions]

I allow you bhikkhus to formally determine the three robes [as personal possessions]
Anujānāmi bhikkhave ticīvaraṃ adhiṭṭhātuṃ (Vin.1.297).

Illustration: adhiṭṭhātabbo, formally determine [as a water-strainer]

Bhikkhus travelling a highroad should carry a water-strainer.

• If there is no strainer or regulation water-pot, then a corner of the outer robe should be formally determined [as a water-strainer] with the words “I will drink [water] having strained it with this.’
☸ Sace na hoti parissāvanaṃ vā dhammakarako vā saṅghāṭikaṇṇo pi adhiṭṭhātabbo iminā parissāvetvā pivissāmī ti (Vin.2.119).

Illustration: adhiṭṭhahaṃ, resolve

If one’s energy is excessive it leads to restlessness; if too lax it leads to indolence. Therefore Soṇa, resolve [to apply yourself] moderately energetically.
accāraddhaṃ viriyaṃ uddhaccāya saṃvattati. Atilīnaṃ viriyaṃ kosajjāya saṃvattati. Tasmātiha tvaṃ soṇa viriyasamataṃ adhiṭṭhaha (A.3.376).

Illustration: anadhiṭṭhāya, firmly rejecting

Firmly rejecting the ego, I saw the supreme landing-place.
Anadhiṭṭhāya attānaṃ titthamaddakkhimuttamaṃ (Th.v.766).

Illustration: adhiṭṭhāya, firmly established

The Blessed One suppressed his illness with energy and lived on having firmly established the aspiration for further life.
Atha kho bhagavā taṃ ābādhaṃ viriyena paṭippanāmetvā jīvitasaṅkhāraṃ adhiṭṭhāya vihāsi (D.2.99; S.5.153).

Illustration: adhiṭṭhito, committed

They considered him wise when he was committed to faring alone, but now that he is devoted to sexual intercourse he is harassed as a fool.
Paṇḍito ti samaññāto ekacariyaṃ adhiṭṭhito
Athāpi methune yutto mandova parikissati

Illustration: adhiṭṭhitaṃ, firmly established

The Buddha, cleanser of virulent spiritual flaws, removed the spiritual shackle [of grasping] which had long been lurking in me, long been firmly established in me.
☸ Dīgharattānusayitaṃ cirarattamadhiṭṭhitaṃ
Buddho me pānudi ganthaṃ visadosappavāhano ti

Illustration: adhiṭṭhahī, firmly established

The Buddha is ‘firmly established in non-anger’
☸ akkodhañca adhiṭṭhahī (D.3.159).

Illustration: adhiṭṭhitaṃ, controlled

Being [yourself] controlled by the power of the four perversions [of perception, mind, and view], mind, you lead me round and round like an ox around the threshing-floor.
Catubbipallāsavasaṃ adhiṭṭhitaṃ gomaṇḍalaṃ va parinesi citta maṃ (Th.v.1143).


Catubbipallāsa: ‘the four perversions [of perception, mind, and view].’ Cattāro’me bhikkhave saññāvipallāsā cittavipallāsā diṭṭhivipallāsā. Katame cattāro? Anicce bhikkhave niccanti… Dukkhe bhikkhave sukhanti… Anattani bhikkhave attāti… Asubhe bhikkhave subhan ti saññāvipallāso cittavipallāso diṭṭhivipallāso (A.2.52).