• ārambha: exertion
• ārambha: slaughter
• samārambha: slaughter
• samārambha: destruction
• sārambha: aggressive
• sārambha: aggressiveness
• ārambha: harmful conduct
• samārambha: harmful conduct
• sārambha: harmful conduct
• ārabhati: to kill
• ārabhati: to exert (energy)
Samārambha, minor meanings
• samārambha: onerous
• samārambha: arrangement
In the context of energy (viriya), ārambha means exertion:
1) ‘Struggling with
hands and feet’ represents the exertion of energy.
☸ satthehi ca pādehi ca vāyāmo ti kho bhikkhave viriyārambhassetaṃ adhivacanaṃ (It.114).
2) There are the phenomenon of exertion, the phenomenon of endeavour,
the phenomenon of application (to the practice). Much proper contemplation in
that regard is a condition that nourishes both the arising of the unarisen enlightenment
factor of energetic application (to the practice), and the perfection through spiritual
cultivation of the arisen enlightenment factor of energetic application (to the
☸ Atthi bhikkhave ārambhadhātu nikkamadhātu parakkamadhātu. Tattha yoniso manasikārabahulīkāro ayamāhāro anuppannassa vā viriyasambojjhaṅgassa uppādāya uppannassa vā viriyasambojjhaṅgassa bhāvanāya pāripūriyā (S.5.104).
Ārambha can also mean slaughter:
• The horse sacrifice,
the human sacrifice, the Sammāpāsa sacrifice, the Vājapeyya sacrifice, the Niraggala
sacrifice, great sacrifices, great acts of slaughter, are not of much fruit.
☸ Assamedhaṃ purisamedhaṃ sammāpāsaṃ vājapeyyaṃ niraggalaṃ
Mahāyaññā mahārambhā na te honti mahapphalā (S.1.76).
Ārabhati: kill or exert (energy)
Ārabhati has two meanings, corresponding to the double maning of ārambha: kill, and exert.
1) In this regard, bhikkhus, some person kills and is
☸ Idha bhikkhave ekacco puggalo ārabhati ca vippaṭisāri ca hoti (A.3.165).
2) They kill living
☸ pāṇaṃ ārabhanti (M.1.368).
3) If anyone
slaughters a living being for the Perfect One or his disciple, he begets much
demerit on five occasions.
☸ Yo kho jīvaka tathāgataṃ vā tathāgatasāvakaṃ vā uddissa pāṇaṃ ārabhati. So pañcahi ṭhānehi bahuṃ apuññaṃ pasavati (M.1.371).
4) He stirs up eagerness, endeavours, applies
energy, exerts his mind, and strives.
☸ chandaṃ janeti vāyamati viriyaṃ ārabhati cittaṃ paggaṇhāti padahati (M.2.26).
Samārambha: slaughter or destruction
Samārambha commonly means slaughter or destruction:
1) Formerly there were
just three illnesses: desire, hunger, and old age. But from the slaughter of
cattle came ninety-eight.
☸ Tayo rogā pure āsuṃ icchā anasanaṃ jarā
Pasūnañca samārambhā aṭṭhānavuti-m-āgamuṃ (Sn.v.311).
2) The ascetic Gotama
abstains from destroying seeds and plants.
☸ Bījagāmabhūtagāmasamārambhā paṭivirato samaṇo gotamo (D.1.5).
Sārambha: aggressiveness or aggressive
Sārambha usually means aggressive or aggressiveness:
1) Speaking aggressively in relation to
views, they do not transcend the round of birth and death.
☸ Diṭṭhisu sārambhakathā saṃsāraṃ nātivattatī ti (Ud.70).
2) Speak not harshly to anyone. Those spoken to might retort. Aggressive
speech is unpleasant. Retaliation might befall you.
☸ Māvoca pharusaṃ kañci vuttā paṭivadeyyuṃ taṃ
Dukkhā hi sārambhakathā paṭidaṇḍā phuseyyuṃ taṃ (Dh.v.133).
3) Sensuous pleasures in this lifetime;
sensuous pleasures in the hereafter… lead to unvirtuous, spiritually
unwholesome mental states such as greed, ill will, and aggressiveness, which
arise for the spiritual obstruction in this world of the noble disciple in
☸ ye ca diṭṭhadhammikā kāmā ye ca samparāyikā kāmā… etthete pāpakā akusalā mānasā abhijjhāpi vyāpādāpi sārambhāpi saṃvattanti teva ariyasāvakassa idhamanusikkhato antarāyāya sambhavanti (M.2.262).
In some circumstances, ārambha, samārambha, and sārambhacan mean ‘harmful conduct’. This meaning is acknowledged in DOP under Ārambha, and called ‘wrongly directed exertion or action’. This is close in meaning to akusala, and could therefore be called ‘spiritually unwholesome conduct.’ But because the three words usually mean ‘aggression’ and ‘slaughter,’ we prefer ‘harmful conduct.’ We illustrate this as follows:
1) Ārambha: harmful conduct
• Whatever suffering arises, all of it
arises dependent on harmful conduct. That is the first consideration.
☸ Yaṃ kiñci dukkhaṃ sambhoti sabbaṃ ārambhapaccayā ti. Ayamekānupassanā
With the complete fading away and ending of
harmful conduct, there is no arising of suffering. That is the second
☸ arambhānaṃ tveva asesavirāganirodhā natthi dukkhassa sambhavo ti. Ayaṃ dutiyānupassanā (Sn.v.744).
2) Samārambha: harmful conduct
• As to those vexatious
and anguishing perceptually obscuring states that arise
due to harmful conduct of body, in
the case of one who abstains from such harmful conduct of body, it follows that
those vexatious and anguishing
perceptually obscuring states do not exist in him.
☸ ye kāyasamārambhapaccayā uppajjanti āsavā vighātapariḷāhā kāyasamārambhā paṭiviratassa evaṃsa te āsavā vighātapariḷāhā na honti (A.2.197-8).
3) Sārambha: harmful conduct
• They go to different countries, wandering
unrestrained. If they lose their inward collectedness, what good will this international
travelling do? Therefore one should eliminate (such) harmful conduct. One
should meditate unaccompanied.
☸ Nānājanapadaṃ yanti vicarantā asaṃyatā
Samādhiñca virādhenti kiṃsu raṭṭhacariyā karissati
Tasmā vineyya sārambhaṃ jhāyeyya apurakkhato ti (Th.v.37).
Samārambha’s two minor meanings:
Samārambha has two minor meanings. ‘Onerous’ is unsurprising, being close in meaning to ārambha, exertion. But ‘arrangement’ is indeed unexpected.
1) Samārambha: onerous (i.e. a food offering is less onerous than an animal sacrifice):
• The perpetual offerings
made by families which are dedicated to virtuous ascetics, is a sacrifice less
difficult and less onerous and is of more fruit and more benefit than the (animal)
sacrifice with its three modes and sixteen accessories.
☸ Yāni kho pana tāni brāhmaṇa niccadānāni anukūlayaññāni sīlavanne pabbajite uddissa dīyanti ayaṃ kho brāhmaṇa yañño imāya tividhāya yaññasampadāya soḷasaparikkhārāya appaṭṭataro ca appasamārambhataro ca mahapphalataro ca mahānisaṃsataro cā ti (D.1.144).
2) Samārambha: arrangement
• If any bhikkhu
knowingly eats almsfood which a bhikkhunī has caused to be prepared, unless
there was a prior arrangement with the householder, this is an offence of
☸ Yo pana bhikkhu jānaṃ bhikkhunīparipācitaṃ piṇḍapātaṃ bhuñjeyya aññatra pubbe gihīsamārambhā pācittiyan ti (Vin.4.67).
‘Arrangement’ is explained in the word commentary as follows:
• An arrangement with
the householder means: either they are one’s relatives, or (the bhikkhus) were (previously)
invited, or (the meal) is ordinarily (scheduled to be) prepared for the
☸ Gihīsamārambho nāma ñātaka vā honti pavārikā vā pakatipaṭiyattaṃ vā (Vin.4.67).