Kittāvatā; Ettāvatā

Renderings

ettāvatā: as if

ettāvatā: even though

ettāvatā: at that point

ettāvatā: only at that point

ettāvatā: in this way

ettāvatā: this much

ettāvatā: thus far and no further

ettāvatā: thus far

ettāvatā: in view of

ettāvatā: on account of this

kittāvatā… ettāvatā: by virtue of what attributes… by virtue of these attributes

kittāvatā… ettāvatā: in what way… in this way

kittāvatā… ettāvatā: on what grounds… on these grounds

kittāvatā… ettāvatā: in reference to what… in reference to this

Illustrations

Illustration: ettāvatā, as if

―Suppose some workman said: ‘This is what King Pasenadi of Kosala says!’ Would he be speaking the King’s words or giving the King’s advice, as if he were the King or King’s chief minister?
evampi rājā pasenadi kosalo āha evampi rājā pasenadī kosalo āhā ti. Api nu so rājabhaṇitaṃ vā bhaṇati rājamantaṃ vā manteti ettāvatā so assa rājā vā rājamahāmatto vā ti?

―No indeed, reverend Gotama (D.1.104-5).

Illustration: ettāvatā, even though

―What do you think, Ambaṭṭha? Suppose a khattiya, for some reason, has been punished and banished from the country or city. In spite of this, would he receive a seat and water from the brahmans?

―He would, reverend Gotama.

―Would they allow him to eat at funeral-rites as a guest?

―They would, reverend Gotama.

―Would they teach him the sacred texts or not?

―They would, reverend Gotama.

―Even though, Ambaṭṭha, the khattiya has reached the extreme of humiliation.
Ettāvatā kho ambaṭṭha khattiyo paramanihīnataṃ patto hoti (D.1.98-9).

Illustration: ettāvatā, at that point; ettāvatā, only at that point

There is, sir, that (absolute) Selfhood as you describe. That I do not deny. But the (absolute) Selfhood has not at that point attained to the highest pleasure in this lifetime.
atthi kho bho eso attā yaṃ tvaṃ vadesi neso natthī ti vadāmi; no ca kho bho ayaṃ attā ettāvatā paramadiṭṭhadhammanibbānaṃ patto hoti.

… But whensoever the (absolute) Selfhood, secluded from sensuous pleasures and spiritually unwholesome factors, enters and abides in first jhāna, which is accompanied by thinking and pondering, and rapture and physical pleasure born of seclusion (from sensuous pleasures and spiritually unwholesome factors), only at that point, sir, has the (absolute) Selfhood attained to the highest pleasure in this lifetime.
Yato kho bho ayaṃ attā vivicceva kāmehi vivicca akusalehi dhammehi savitakkaṃ savicāraṃ vivekajaṃ pītisukhaṃ paṭhamaṃ jhānaṃ upasampajja viharati ettāvatā kho bho ayaṃ attā paramadiṭṭhadhammanibbānaṃ patto hotī ti (D.1.36).

Illustration: ettāvatā, at this point; kittāvatā, at what point?

―’Nigrodha, at this point, austerity and asceticism has not reached the peak, the very pith. It has only reached the inner bark.’
Na kho nigrodha ettāvatā tapojigucchā aggappattā ca hoti sārappattā ca api ca kho tacappattā hotī ti

―’At what point, then, bhante has austerity and asceticism reached the peak, the very pith?’
Kittāvatā ca kho pana bhante tapojigucchā aggappattā ca hoti sārappattā ca (D.3.50).

Illustration: ettāvatā, not until this point

He knows that birth is destroyed; the religious life has been fulfilled; what had to be done has been done; there will be no further arising in any state of individual existence.
Khīṇā jāti vusitaṃ brahmacariyaṃ kataṃ karaṇīyaṃ nāparaṃ itthattāyāti pajānāti.

This, too, is called a footprint of the Perfect One, a scratch mark of the Perfect One, a tusk slash of the Perfect One,
Idampi vuccati brāhmaṇa tathāgatapadaṃ iti pi tathāgatanisevitaṃ iti pi tathāgatārañjitaṃ itipi.

And it is not until this point that a noble disciple can come to the conclusion: ‘The Blessed One is perfectly enlightened; the teaching is well explained by the Blessed One; the community of the Blessed One’s disciples is applied to an excellent practice.’
Ettāvatā kho brāhmaṇa ariyasāvako niṭṭhaṃ gato hoti sammāsambuddho bhagavā svākkhāto bhagavatā dhammo supaṭipanno bhagavato sāvakasaṅgho ti (M.1.184).

Illustration: kittāvatā, in what ways; ettāvatā, in these ways

In what ways do people explain the (absolute) Selfhood?
Kittāvatā ca ānanda attānaṃ paññapento paññapeti

Either material and limited, or material and unlimited, or immaterial and limited, or immaterial and unlimited.
rūpiṃ vā hi ānanda parittaṃ attānaṃ paññapento paññapeti rūpī me paritto attā ti… arūpiṃ vā hi ānanda anantaṃ attānaṃ paññapento paññapeti arūpī me ananto attā ti.

In these ways people explain the (absolute) Selfhood.
Ettāvatā kho ānanda attānaṃ paññapento paññapeti (D.2.65).

Illustration: ettāvatā, in this way

It is not in this way, Ānanda, that the Perfect One is honoured, revered, respected, reverenced, and venerated
Na kho ānanda ettāvatā tathāgato sakkato vā hoti garukato vā mānito vā pūjito vā apacito vā (D.2.138).

Illustration: ettāvatā, in this way

When a bhikkhu recollects the Buddha, the teaching, and the community of the Blessed One’s disciples in this way, and detached awareness based on what is spiritually wholesome is established within him, he is pleased about it.
Tassa ce āvuso bhikkhuno evaṃ buddhaṃ anussarato evaṃ dhammaṃ anussarato evaṃ saṅghaṃ anussarato upekkhā kusalanissitā saṇṭhāti so tena attamano hoti.

In this way, much has been accomplished by the bhikkhu.
Ettāvatā pi kho āvuso bhikkhuno bahukataṃ hoti (M.1.186-7).

Illustration: kittāvatā, in what way; ettāvatā, in this way

In what way do the disciples of a teacher who lives secludedly not likewise train themselves in seclusion (from sensuous pleasures and spiritually unwholesome factors).
Kittāvatā nu kho āvuso satthu pavivittassa viharato sāvakā vivekaṃ nānusikkhanti?

… In this way the disciples of a teacher who lives secludedly do not likewise train themselves in seclusion (from sensuous pleasures and spiritually unwholesome factors).
Ettāvatāvuso satthu pavivittassa viharato sāvakā vivekaṃ nānusikkhanti (M.1.14).

Illustration: kittāvatā, in what way; ettāvatā, in this way

In what way, bhante, can a bhikkhu abide at ease while living in a monastic community?
Kittāvatā nu kho bhante bhikkhu saṅghe viharanto phāsuṃ vihareyyāti.

When a bhikkhu is himself perfect in virtue but does not exhort others in regard to higher virtue. In this way, Ānanda, a bhikkhu can dwell at ease while living in a monastic community.
Yato kho ānanda bhikkhu attanā sīlasampanno hoti no ca paraṃ adhisīle sampavattā. Ettāvatā pi kho ānanda bhikkhu saṅghe viharanto phāsuṃ vihareyyā ti (A.3.132-3).

Illustration: kittāvatā, in what way; ettāvatā, in this way

―’Bhante, in what way, stated briefly, is a bhikkhu liberated (from perceptually obscuring states) through the destruction of craving
Kittāvatā nu kho bhante bhikkhu saṅkhittena taṇhāsaṅkhayavimutto hoti

In this way, stated briefly, Lord of the Devas, is a bhikkhu liberated (from perceptually obscuring states) through the destruction of craving
Ettāvatā kho devānaminda bhikkhu saṅkhittena taṇhāsaṅkhayavimutto hoti (M.1.251).

Illustration: ettāvatā, this much

Subha said the virtue of some ascetics and Brahmanists was less impressive than the bhikkhus, and added that if any of those ascetics and Brahmanists discovered the virtue of the bhikkhus in themselves they would exclaim:

‘This much is enough. This much is sufficient. The goal of our asceticism has been reached. There is nothing more to be done.’
alamettāvatā katamettāvatā anuppatto no sāmaññattho natthi no kiñci uttariṃ karaṇiyan ti (D.1.207).

Illustration: ettāvatā, this much

Is this much enough, your majesty? Will this much do, your majesty? Is this much to be offered, your majesty?
alamettāvatā mahārāja katamettāvatā mahārāja pūjitamettāvatā mahārājāti (D.2.176).

Illustration: ettāvatā, thus far and no further

Pausing at the door before entering his meditation chamber, King Mahāsudassana exclaimed:

‘May sensuous thought stop! May unbenevolent thought stop! May malicious thought stop!’
tiṭṭha kāmavitakka tiṭṭha vyāpādavitakka tiṭṭha vihiṃsāvitakka

‘Thus far and no further, sensuous thought! Thus far and no further, unbenevolent thought! Thus far and no further, malicious thought!’
ettāvatā kāmavitakka ettāvatā vyāpādavitakka ettāvatā vihiṃsāvitakkā ti (D.2.186).

Illustration: ettāvatā, thus far

Pañcasikha approached the Indasāla Cave with his lute, then thought, ‘Thus far is neither too far from nor too near to the Blessed One, and he will hear my voice;’ and so he began to sing.
Upasaṅkamitvā ettāvatā me bhagavā neva atidūre bhavissati na accāsanena saddañca me sossatī ti (D.2.265).

Illustration: ettāvatā, in view of

When Subha sent a messenger to invite Venerable Ānanda to visit, Ānanda said he had just taken medicine, but if he had the time and opportunity he would visit the following day.
Atthi me ajja bhesajjamattā pītā. Appevanāma svepi upasaṅkameyyāma kālañca samayañca upādāyāti

The messenger reported this to Subha and added:

‘Therefore, in view of this arrangement the Reverend Ānanda will probably take the opportunity to come tomorrow.’
Ettāvatā pi kho bho katameva etaṃ yato so bho bhavaṃ ānando okāsamakāsi svātanāyapi upasaṅkamanāyā ti (D.1.205).

Comment:

PED says yato… ettāvatā means ‘because… therefore.’

Illustration: ettāvatā, on account of this

Then it occurred to me:
tassa mayhaṃ bhikkhave etadahosi

The stream of consciousness turns back at denomination-and-bodily-form; it does not go further.
paccudāvattati kho idaṃ viññāṇaṃ nāmarūpamhā nāparaṃ gacchati

On account of this one can be born, age and die, pass away and be reborn
☸ Ettāvatā jāyetha vā jīyetha vā mīyetha vā cavetha vā upapajjetha vā

Namely through the stream of consciousness being dependent on denomination-and-bodily-form; and denomination-and-bodily-form being dependent on the stream of consciousness.
☸ yadidaṃ nāmarūpapaccayā viññāṇaṃ viññāṇapaccayā nāmarūpaṃ
(S.2.104).

Illustration: ettāvatā, on account of this; ettāvatā, thus far

Therefore, this is the indispensible condition, the source, the origin, the necessary condition of the stream of consciousness, namely denomination-and-bodily-form.
Tasmātihānanda eseva hetu etaṃ nidānaṃ esa samudayo esa paccayo viññāṇassa yadidaṃ nāmarūpaṃ

On account of this one can be born, age and die, pass away and be reborn.
☸ Ettāvatā kho ānanda jāyetha vā jīyetha vā mīyetha vā cavetha vā upapajjetha vā

Thus far extends the ways of verbal designation,
ettāvatā adhivacanapatho

Thus far extends the ways of conventional expression,
ettāvatā niruttipatho

Thus far extends the ways of intimation,
ettāvatā viññattipatho

Thus far extends the sphere of discernment,
ettāvatā paññāvacaraṃ

Thus far the round of rebirth revolves and personal existence is to be discerned,
ettāvatā vaṭṭaṃ vattati itthattaṃ paññāpanāya

namely denomination-and-bodily-form together with the stream of consciousness,
yadidaṃ nāmarūpaṃ saha viññāṇena

which continue through mutual conditionality.
aññamaññapaccayatāya pavattati (D.2.63-4).

Illustration: kittāvatā, by virtue of what attributes (vs. evaṃ and vs. kathaṃ… idha)

―By virtue of what attributes is someone who is not vigorously applied (to the practice) and unafraid of wrongdoing incapable of reaching enlightenment, incapable of realising the Untroubled, incapable of reaching unsurpassed safety from (the danger of) bondage (to individual existence)?”
Kittāvatā nu kho āvuso anātāpī hoti anottāpī abhabbo sambodhāya abhabbo nibbānāya abhabbo anuttarassa yogakkhemassa adhigamāya?

―In this regard, friend, a bhikkhu thinks:

‘If unarisen unvirtuous, spiritually unwholesome factors arise in me, this would lead to my harm,’ but he does not vigorously apply himself (to the practise).
Idhāvuso bhikkhu anuppannā me pāpakā akusalā dhammā uppajjamānā anatthāya saṃvatteyyunti na ātappaṃ karoti

… In this way he is someone not vigorously applied (to the practice).
Evaṃ kho āvuso anātāpī hoti.

In what way is someone unafraid of wrongdoing.
Kathañcāvuso anottāpī hoti?

In this regard, friend, a bhikkhu thinks:

If unarisen unvirtuous, spiritually unwholesome factors arise in me, this would lead to my harm,’ but he is unafraid of wrongdoing.
Idhāvuso bhikkhu anuppannā me pāpakā akusalā dhammā uppajjamānā anatthāya saṃvatteyyunti na ottapati (S.2.195-6).

Illustration: kittāvatā, by virtue of what attributes; ettāvatā, by virtue of these attributes

‘Bhante, by virtue of what attributes are the aggregates called aggregates?’
Kittāvatā pana bhante khandhānaṃ khandhādhivacanaṃ hotī ti?

By virtue of these attributes the aggregates called aggregates.’
Ettāvatā kho bhikkhu khandhānaṃ khandhādhivacanaṃ hotī ti (M.3.16-17).

Illustration: kittāvatā, on what grounds; ettāvatā, on these grounds

Right perception (of reality), right perception (of reality),’ is said, friend. On what grounds does a noble disciple have right perception (of reality)?
Sammādiṭṭhi sammādiṭṭhī ti āvuso vuccati kittāvatā nu kho āvuso ariyasāvako sammādiṭṭhi hoti.

When a noble disciple discerns what is spiritually unwholesome, the origin of what is spiritually unwholesome, what is spiritually wholesome, and the origin of what is spiritually wholesome,
Yato kho āvuso ariyasāvako akusalañca pajānāti akusalamūlañca pajānāti. Kusalañca pajānāti kusalamūlañca pajānāti

On these grounds a noble disciple has right perception (of reality).
Ettāvatā pi kho āvuso ariyasāvako sammādiṭṭhi hoti (M.1.46).

On these grounds a noble disciple has
Ettāvatā pi kho āvuso ariyasāvako

right perception (of reality)
☸ sammādiṭṭhi hoti

has a perception (of reality) that is correct
ujugatāssa diṭṭhi

has unshakeable faith in the (excellence of the) teaching
dhamme aveccappasādena samannāgato

and has fathomed this true teaching
āgato imaṃ saddhamman ti (M.1.47).

Illustration: kittāvatā, on what grounds?

On grounds (of what attainment), friend Kālāma, having realised this state for yourself through transcendent insight and abiding in it, do you make it known to others?
☸ kittāvatā no āvuso kālāma imaṃ dhammaṃ sayaṃ abhiññā sacchikatvā upasampajja pavedesī ti.

In reply he declared (that he had realised) the state of awareness of nonexistence.
☸ Evaṃ vutte bhikkhave āḷāro kālāmo ākiñcaññāyatanaṃ pavedesi.

In no short time, I quickly realised that state for myself through transcendent insight and abided in it.
So kho ahaṃ bhikkhave nacirasseva khippameva taṃ dhammaṃ sayaṃ abhiññā sacchikatvā upasampajja vihāsiṃ (M.1.164-6).

Illustration: kittāvatā, on what grounds; ettāvatā, on these grounds

‘Insightfulness into reality’ is spoken of, bhante.
vijjā vijjā ti bhante vuccati

What now, bhante, is insightfulness into reality, and on what grounds is one possessed of insight into reality?’
katamā nu kho bhante vijjā kittāvatā ca vijjāgato hotī ti?

‘Bhikkhus, whatsoever is the knowledge of suffering (according to reality), of the origin of suffering, the ending of suffering, and of the practice leading to the ending of suffering, is called insightfulness into reality, and it is on these grounds that one is possessed of insight into reality.’
Yaṃ kho bhikkhu dukkhe ñāṇaṃ dukkhasamudaye ñāṇaṃ dukkhanirodhe ñāṇaṃ dukkhanirodhagāminiyā paṭipadāya ñāṇaṃ ayaṃ vuccati bhikkhu vijjā ettāvatā ca vijjāgato hoti (S.5.430).

Illustration: kittāvatā, on what grounds; ettāvatā, on these grounds

―’One perfect (in the development of) the (six) sense faculties’ is said. bhante.’ On what grounds, bhante, is one perfect (in the development of) the (six) sense faculties?
indriyasampanno indriyasampannoti bhante vuccati kittāvatā nu kho bhante indriyasampanno hotī ti?

―If, bhikkhu, one abides contemplating the arising and disappearance of the faculty of sight… the faculty of mental cognisance, one is disillusioned with the faculty of mental cognisance
Cakkhundriye ce bhikkhu udayabbayānupassī viharanto cakkhundriye nibbindati… manindriye ce bhikkhu udayabbayānupassī viharanto manindriye nibbindati.

… Being disillusioned (with originated phenomena), one is unattached (to originated phenomena). Being unattached (to originated phenomena) one is liberated (from perceptually obscuring states).
nibbindaṃ virajjati virāgā vimuccati.

… On these grounds one is perfect (in the development of) the (six) sense faculties.
☸ ettāvatā kho bhikkhu indriyasampanno hotī ti
(S.4.140).

Illustration: kittāvatā, on what grounds? (vs. evaṃ)

―Bhante, it is said: ‘Individual existence. Individual existence
☸ bhavo bhavo ti bhante vuccati.

On what grounds is there individual existence?
☸ kittāvatā nu kho bhante bhavo hotī ti?

―For beings (obstructed by) uninsightfulness into reality, and (tethered to individual existence) by craving the stream of consciousness is established in the low plane of existence
avijjānīvaraṇānaṃ sattānaṃ taṇhāsaṃyojanānaṃ hīnāya dhātuyā viññāṇaṃ patiṭṭhitaṃ

… In this way renewed states of individual existence and rebirth occur in the future
evaṃ āyatiṃ punabbhavābhinibbatti hoti.

Thus, Ānanda, is there individual existence
Evaṃ ko ānanda bhavo hotī ti (A.1.223-4).

Illustration: kittāvatā, on what grounds? (vs. yasmā… tasmā)

‘Void (of personal qualities) is the world (of phenomena)’: on what grounds, bhante, is this said?
☸ suñño loko suñño loko ti bhante vuccati kittāvatā nu kho bhante suñño loko ti vuccatī ti?

Because, Ānanda, it is void of an (absolute) Selfhood and of what could belong to an (absolute) Selfhood, therefore it is said that the world (of phenomena) is void (of personal qualities).
☸ Yasmā ca kho ānanda suññaṃ attena vā attaniyena vā tasmā suñño loko ti vuccati
(S.4.54).

Illustration: kittāvatā, in reference to what; ettāvatā, in reference to this

In reference to what was tranquillity spoken of by the Blessed One?
☸ Passaddhi passaddhī ti āvuso vuccati kittāvatā nu kho āvuso passaddhi vuttā bhagavatāti?

Secluded from sensuous pleasures and spiritually unwholesome factors, a bhikkhu enters and abides in first jhāna, which is accompanied by thinking and pondering, and rapture and physical pleasure born of seclusion (from sensuous pleasures and spiritually unwholesome factors).
☸ Idhāvuso bhikkhu vivicceva kāmehi vivicca akusalehi dhammehi savitakkaṃ savicāraṃ vivekajaṃ pītisukhaṃ paṭhamaṃ jhānaṃ upasampajja viharati.

It is in reference to this that tranquillity is spoken of by the Blessed One, in a way that is qualified.
☸ Ettāvatā pi kho āvuso passaddhi vuttā bhagavatā pariyāyena…
(A.4.456).

Illustration: kittāvatā, in reference to what (vs. what, yaṃ)

‘World (of phenomena)’ is said, bhante. In reference to what was it said?
loko loko ti bhante vuccati kittāvatā nu kho bhante loko ti vuccatī ti.

Whatever is destined to decay is called ‘the world (of phenomena)’ in the (terminology of the) Noble One’s training system.
Yaṃ kho ānanda palokadhammaṃ ayaṃ vuccati ariyassa vinaye loko (S.4.53).

Illustration: kittāvatā, in reference to what (vs. tasmā)

―Spheres of sensation, spheres of sensation, is said, friend. In reference to what was it said?
Viññāṇaṃ viññāṇan ti āvuso vuccati. Kittāvatā nu kho āvuso viññāṇan ti vuccatī ti?

―One knows, one knows. Therefore spheres of sensation is said.
Vijānāti vijānātī ti kho āvuso tasmā viññāṇan ti vuccati (M.1.292-3).