Kukkucca; Vippaṭisāra

Renderings

kukkucca: fretting

kukkucca: scrupulous

kukkucca: anxiety

kukkucca: remorseful

kukkucca: guilt

vippaṭisāra: uneasiness

vippaṭisāra: uneasy conscience

vippaṭisārin: conscience-stricken

vippaṭisārin: regretful

Introduction

Kukkucca: fretting

When Venerable Anuruddha complained that for all his meditation skill, his mind was still not released from the āsavas, Venerable Sāriputta called this kukkucca, fretting (A.1.281). The subsiding of fretting is therefore linked to arahantship. This association is confirmed in the following verse:

• Serve with other food and drink the one who is spiritually perfected, the great Seer, one whose āsavas are destroyed, whose fretting has subsided, for he is the (unsurpassed) field for one looking for merit.
Aññena ca kevalinaṃ mahesiṃ khīṇāsavaṃ kukkuccavūpasantaṃ
Annena pānena upaṭṭhahassu khettaṃ hi taṃ puññapekkhassa hoti
(Sn.v.481).

Kukkucca: scrupulousness

When a sick bhikkhu refused to use a vehicle out of respect of the bhikkhus’ discipline, it was from scrupulousness (kukkuccāyanto Vin.1.191).

Kukkucca: remorse

When, through sickness, Venerable Vakkali was unable to visit the Buddha, he felt remorseful about it (kukkuccaṃ, S.3.120).

When they break their precepts bhikkhus feel remorseful (kukkuccaṃ S.3.120). This is linked to vippaṭisāro (being conscience-stricken) and attā sīlato upavadatī (reproaching oneself in regard to virtue).

Kukkucca: anxiety

Sometimes kukkucca is the anxiety associated with the thought ‘I hope I have not fallen into an offence’: Tesaṃ kukkuccaṃ ahosi. Bhagavatā sikkhāpadaṃ paññattaṃ. Kacci nu kho mayaṃ pārājikaṃ āpattiṃ āpannā ti (Vin.3.34). See Illustrations.

Kukkucca: guilt

When bhikkhus impatiently recited the Pātimokkha instead of waiting for the other bhikkhus to arrive, knowing it was wrongful to do so, they recited it ‘guiltily’ (kukkuccapakatā Vin.1.131).

Vippaṭisāra: uneasiness

An example of uneasiness is found in the assertion that a Perfect One exists after death (hoti tathāgato parammaraṇā ti), or does not exist. This is a matter of uneasiness (vippaṭisāro eso, A.4.68-9) presumably because any theory of the Buddha either existing or not existing after death is philosophically disasterous.

Kukkuccaṃ plus vippaṭisāro: remorseful and conscience-stricken

When kukkuccaṃ occurs in combination with vippaṭisāro the pair of terms can mean either ‘remorseful and conscience-stricken’ or ‘anxious and uneasy.’ For example, when a chief minister became angry with the bhikkhus, and insulted them, he was remorseful and conscience-stricken about it (ahudeva kukkuccaṃ ahu vippaṭisāro Vin.1.223).

• But soon after the Blessed One had departed, that chief minister, young in faith, became remorseful and conscience-stricken and thought: It is a loss for me, not a gain; it is unfortunate for me, not fortunate, that I, angry and displeased, wanting to insult the bhikkhus, went round filling their bowls and saying: ‘Eat it or take it away’. Now, have I made much merit or demerit?
Atha kho tassa taruṇappasannassa mahāmattassa acirapakkantassa bhagavato ahudeva kukkuccaṃ. Ahu vippaṭisāro alābhā vata me na vata me lābhā dulladdhaṃ vata me na vata me suladdhaṃ yohaṃ kupito anattamano āsādanāpekkho bhikkhūnaṃ patte pūrentā agamāsiṃ ‘bhuñjatha vā haratha vā’ ti. Kinnu kho mayā bahuṃ pasutaṃ puññaṃ vā apuññaṃ vā ti (Vin.1.223).

Kukkuccaṃ plus vippaṭisāro: anxiety and uneasiness

But when Venerable Assaji found he could no longer attain inward collectedness, he became anxious and uneasy (anappakaṃ kukkuccaṃ anappako vippaṭisāro) because he thought it would ruin him:

• As I do not attain that inward collectedness, bhante, it occurs to me: ‘May I not waste away!’
Tassa mayhaṃ bhante taṃ samādhiṃ appaṭilabhato evaṃ hoti no ca khvāhaṃ parihāyāmī ti (S.3.125).

Illustrations: kukkucca

Illustration: kukkuccakā, scrupulous

When bhikkhus walked for almsfood badly behaved, those bhikkhus who were of few needs, content (with what is paltry and easily gotten), conscientious, scrupulous, and desirous of training complained, muttered, and grumbled:
ye te bhikkhū appicchā santuṭṭhā lajjino kukkuccakā sikkhākāmā te ujjhāyanti khiyanti vipācenti (Vin.1.44).

Illustration: kukkuccāyanto, scrupulous

When a bhikkhu walking to Sāvatthī became ill, people invited him to use a vehicle. He replied:

• ‘A vehicle is objected to by the Blessed One,’ and being scrupulous, refused it.
Alaṃ āvuso paṭikkhittaṃ bhagavatā yānan ti. Kukkuccāyanto yānaṃ nābhīruhi (Vin.1.191).

Illustration: kukkuccasmiṃ, fretting

‘Anuruddha, friend, when you say “With purified divine vision surpassing that of men, I survey the thousandfold multi-universe system,” that is your self-centredness.
idante mānasmiṃ

‘When you say “My… mind is collected and concentrated,” that is your vanity.
idante uddhaccasmiṃ

‘When you say “But for all that my mind is not liberated from perceptually obscuring states through being without grasping,” that is your fretting.
Yampi te āvuso anuruddha evaṃ hoti atha ca pana me na anupādāya āsavehi cittaṃ vimuccatī ti idante kukkuccasmiṃ (A.1.282).

Illustration: kukkuccā, fretting

He should be meditative, not wandering about. He should desist from fretting.
☸ Jhāyī na pādalolassa virame kukkuccā (Sn.v.925).

Illustration: kukkuccāya, anxiety

Why recite these lesser and minor training rules? They only lead to anxiety, vexation, and perplexity.
☸ kiṃ panimehi khuddisante vā sikkhāpadehi uddiṭṭhehi yāvadve kukkuccāya vihesāya vilekhāya saṃvattanti (Vin.4.143).

Illustration: kukkuccaṃ, anxiety

Bhikkhus became anxious over various matters (kismiñci kismiñci ṭhāne kukkuccaṃ uppajjati), wanting to know what was permitted (kinnu kho bhagavatā anuññātaṃ) or forbidden (kiṃ ananuññātan ti) in ‘various situations’ (kismiñci kismiñci ṭhāne) (Vin.1.251).

Illustration: kukkuccassa, anxiety

There is inward unpeacefulness. Much improper contemplation in that regard is a condition that nourishes both the arising of unarisen restlessness and anxiety, and the increase and expansion of arisen restlessness and anxiety.
Atthi bhikkhave cetaso avūpasamo. Tattha ayoniso manasikārabahulīkāro ayamāhāro anuppannassa vā uddhaccakukkuccassa uppādāya uppannassa vā uddhaccakukkuccassa bhiyyobhāvāya vepullāya (S.5.103-106).

Illustration: kukkuccaṃ, anxious

A certain bhikkhu having had sex with a monkey became anxious, thinking, ‘The Blessed One has established a training rule. I hope I have not fallen into a pārājika offence.
aññataro bhikkhu makkaṭiyā methunaṃ dhammaṃ patisevi. Tassa kukkuccaṃ ahosi. Bhagavatā sikkhāpadaṃ paññattaṃ. Kacci nu kho ahaṃ pārājikaṃ āpattiṃ āpanno ti (Vin.3.34).

Illustration: kukkuccaṃ, anxious

Once when a bhikkhu was ill the bhikkhus heated him and he died. They became anxious, thinking, ‘The Blessed One has established a training rule. I hope we have not fallen into a pārājika offence.’
Tena kho pana samayena aññataro bhikkhu gilāno hoti. Taṃ bhikkhū sedesuṃ. So bhikkhu kālamakāsi tesaṃ kukkuccaṃ ahosi. Kacci nū kho mayaṃ pārājikaṃ āpattiṃ āpannā ti (Vin.3.82).

Illustration: kukkucca, guiltily

In a certain residence several resident bhikkhus, four or more, collect together on an Observance day. They know that there are other resident bhikkhus who have not arrived. Thinking, ‘It is allowable for us to carry out the Observance, it is not unallowable,’ they guiltily perform the Observance and recite the Pātimokkha.
aññatarasmiṃ āvāse tadahuposathe sambahulā āvāsikā bhikkhū sannipatanti cattāro vā atirekā vā. Te jānanti atthaññe āvāsikā bhikkhū anāgatā ti. Te kappateva amhākaṃ uposatho kātuṃ? Nāmhākaṃ na kappatī ti kukkuccapakatā uposathaṃ karonti. Pātimokkhaṃ uddisanti (Vin.1.131).

Illustrations: vippaṭisāra

Illustration: vippaṭisāro, matter of uneasiness

The assertion that a Perfect One exists after death, or does not exist, or both exists and does not exist, or neither exists nor not exists (Hoti tathāgato parammaraṇā ti)is an

• acquiescence in dogmatism
☸ diṭṭhigatametaṃ

• acquiescence in craving
taṇhāgatametaṃ

• acquiescence in mental imagery
saññāgatametaṃ

• matter of thinking in personal terms
maññitametaṃ

• matter of entrenched perception
papañcitametaṃ

• acquiescence in grasping
upādānagatametaṃ

• and a matter of uneasiness
vippaṭisāro eso (A.4.68-9).

Illustration: vippaṭisārī, conscience-stricken; kukkuccaṃ, anxious

A certain bhikkhu intending to have sex with a woman was conscience-stricken at the mere touch.
Tena kho pana samayena aññataro bhikkhu itthiyā methunaṃ dhammaṃ patisevissāmiti chupitamatte vippaṭisārī ahosī.

He became anxious, thinking, ‘The Blessed One has established a training rule. I hope I have not fallen into a pārājika offence.’
Tassa kukkuccaṃ ahosi (Vin.3.37).

Illustration: vippaṭisāraṃ, uneasy conscience

‘It might be, Ānanda, that someone might arouse an uneasy conscience in Cunda the metalworker (by telling him): “It is a loss for you, friend Cunda, it is unfortunate for you that the Perfect One died after taking his last meal from you!”
Siyā kho panānanda cundassa kammāraputtassa koci vippaṭisāraṃ upadaheyya tassa te āvuso cunda alābhā tassa te dulladdhaṃ yassa te tathāgato pacchimaṃ piṇḍapātaṃ bhuñjitvā parinibbuto ti (D.2.135-6).

Illustration: avippaṭisārissa, uneasy conscience

For one who is virtuous, perfect in virtue, there is no need to harbour the aspiration: ‘May freedom from an uneasy conscience arise in me.
☸ Sīlavato bhikkhave sīlasampannassa na cetanāya karaṇīyaṃ avippaṭisāro me uppajjatū ti.

It is quite natural that one who is virtuous, perfect in virtue, freedom from an uneasy conscience arises in him.
Dhammatā esā bhikkhave yaṃ sīlavato sīlasampannassa avippaṭisāro uppajjati (A.5.2).

Illustration: vippaṭisārino, regret

Meditate, Cunda! Do not be negligently applied (to the practice) lest you regret it later!
Jhāyatha cunda mā pamādattha. Mā pacchā vippaṭisārino ahuvattha (M.1.46).

Illustration: anxiety and uneasiness

Illustration: anxious and uneasy

’Bhante, I am not willing to eat at a single session; for if I did, I might become anxious and uneasy about it.’
Ekāsanabhojanaṃ hi me bhante bhuñjato siyā kukkuccaṃ siyā vippaṭisāroti (M.1.437-8).

Illustration: anxious and uneasy

―’I hope, Assaji, you are not anxious or uneasy about anything.’
Kacci te assaji na kiñci kukkuccaṃ na koci vippaṭisāro ti

―’In fact, bhante, I am very anxious and uneasy.’
Taggha me bhante anappakaṃ kukkuccaṃ anappako vippaṭisāro ti

―’I hope, Assaji, you have nothing to reproach yourself about in regard to virtue.’
Kacci pana taṃ assaji attā sīlato na upavadatī ti

―’I have nothing, bhante, to reproach myself about in regard to virtue.’
Na kho maṃ bhante attā sīlato upavadatī ti

―’Then, Assaji, what is there to be anxious and uneasy about?’

―’Formerly, bhante, when I was ill I dwelt with my bodily form tranquillised. Now I do not attain that inward collectedness. As I do not attain that inward collectedness, bhante, it occurs to me: “May I not waste away!”’
Pubbeva khvāhaṃ bhante gelaññe passambhetvā kāyasaṅkhāre viharāmi. Sohaṃ taṃ samādhiṃ nappaṭilabhāmi. Tassa mayhaṃ bhante taṃ samādhiṃ appaṭilabhato evaṃ hoti no ca khvāhaṃ parihāyāmī ti (S.3.125).

Illustration: remorseful and conscience-stricken

Illustration: remorseful and conscience-stricken

When a chief minister became angry with the bhikkhus, he became remorseful and conscience-stricken about it.
ahudeva kukkuccaṃ ahu vippaṭisāro (Vin.1.223).

Illustration: remorseful and conscience-stricken

―‘Bhante, on one occasion, while the Blessed One instructed the bhikkhus with a talk on the training rules, I became impatient and irritated, thinking: ‘This ascetic is too stringent.’
ahudeva akkhanti ahu appaccayo adhisallikhatevāyaṃ samaṇo ti.

‘Afterwards I became remorseful and conscience-stricken about it.
ahudeva kukkuccaṃ ahu vippaṭisāro (A.1.237).

Illustration: remorseful and conscience-stricken

―’I hope, Vakkali, you are not remorseful or conscience-stricken about anything.’
Kacci te vakkali na kiñci kukkuccaṃ na koci vippaṭisāro ti

―’In fact, bhante, I am very remorseful and conscience-stricken.’
Taggha me bhante anappakaṃ kukkuccaṃ anappako vippaṭisāro ti

―’I hope, Vakkali, you have nothing to reproach yourself about in regard to virtue.’
Kacci pana taṃ vakkali attā sīlato na upavadatī ti

―’I have nothing, bhante, to reproach myself about in regard to virtue.’
Na kho maṃ bhante attā sīlato upavadatī ti

―’Then, Vakkali, what is there to be remorseful and conscience-stricken about?.’
No ce kira vakkali attā sīlato upavadati atha kiñca te kukkuccaṃ ko ca vippaṭisāro ti?

―’For a long time, bhante, I have wanted to come to see the Blessed One, but I haven’t had strength enough to do so’
Cirapaṭikāhaṃ bhante bhagavantaṃ dassanāya upasaṅkamitukāmo natthi ca me kāyasmīṃ tāvatikā balamattā yāvatāhaṃ bhagavantaṃ dassanāya upasaṅkameyyan ti (S.3.121).

Illustration: remorseful and conscience-stricken

After having had sex Venerable Sudinna was remorseful and conscience-stricken
Atha kho āyasmato sudinnassa ahudeva kukkuccaṃ ahu vippaṭisāro (Vin.3.19).