• oḷārika: gross
• oḷārika: gross material
• oḷārika: obvious
• oḷārika: self-evident
• oḷārika: less subtle
• oḷārika: less refined
• oḷārika: not particularly refined
• oḷārika: effortful
• oḷārika: morally unrefined
Whatever bodily form, past, future, or
present, internal or external, gross or subtle, inferior or sublime, far or
☸ Yaṃ kiñci rūpaṃ atītānāgatapaccuppannaṃ ajjhattaṃ vā bahiddhā vā oḷārikaṃ vā sukhumaṃ vā hīnaṃ vā paṇītaṃ vā yaṃ dūre santike vā (M.3.18-9).
Physical food, gross or subtle;
☸ kabaliṅkāro āhāro oḷāriko vā sukhumo (M.1.48).
What now if I allowed
medicine for bhikkhus, both medicine itself as well as what could be regarded as
medicine, which though it serves as nourishment in the
world, could not be regarded as
☸ Kinnū kho ahaṃ bhikkhūnaṃ bhesajjaṃ anujāneyyaṃ yaṃ bhesajjañceva assa bhesajjasammatañca lokassa āhāratthañca phareyya na ca oḷāriko āhāro paññāyeyyā ti (Vin.1.199).
Illustration: gross material
Whenever the gross material acquired self is present, it is not reckoned as
a mind-made material acquired self, nor an immaterial acquired self. It is reckoned only as a gross material acquired
self on that occasion.
☸ yasmiṃ samaye oḷāriko attapaṭilābho hoti neva tasmiṃ samaye manomayo attapaṭilābho ti saṅkhaṃ gacchati. Na arūpo attapaṭilābho ti saṅkhaṃ gacchati. ‘Oḷāriko attapaṭilābho’tveva tasmiṃ samaye saṅkhaṃ gacchati (D.1.202).
In this regard, in seeing a visible object
via the visual sense, there arises in a bhikkhu pleasure, or displeasure, or pleasure
☸ cakkhunā rūpaṃ disvā uppajjati manāpaṃ uppajjati amanāpaṃ uppajjati manāpāmanāpaṃ.
He knows that ‘This pleasure has arisen in
me, this displeasure… this pleasure plus displeasure has arisen in me.
☸ uppannaṃ kho me idaṃ manāpaṃ uppannaṃ amanāpaṃ uppannaṃ manāpāmanāpaṃ
And that is originated, self-evident,
☸ saṅkhataṃ oḷārikaṃ paṭiccasamuppannaṃ
But this is peaceful, this is sublime,
namely, detached awareness.
☸ Etaṃ santaṃ etaṃ paṇītaṃ yadidaṃ upekkhā ti (M.3.299).
Some (ascetics and Brahmanists) proclaim
that the state of awareness of nonexistence, limitless and imperturbable, where
one perceives that there is (nowhere) anything at all, is the purest, highest,
best, and greatest of those states of refined awareness, whether refined
material states of awareness, or immaterial states of awareness, or states of
refined awareness involving mental cognisance alone, or involving the external
☸ Yā vā panetāsaṃ saññānaṃ parisuddhā paramā aggā anuttariyā akkhāyati yadi rūpasaññānaṃ yadi arūpasaññānaṃ yadi ekattasaññānaṃ yadi nānattasaññānaṃ natthi kiñci ti ākiñcaññāyatanaṃ eke abhivadanti appamāṇaṃ āneñjaṃ.
But that (state of refined awareness) is
originated and self-evident. And there is a ending of originated phenomena. Knowing
the truth of this, seeing the deliverance (from originated phenomena) the Perfect
One has gone beyond it.
☸ Tayidaṃ saṅkhataṃ oḷārikaṃ. Atthi kho pana saṅkhārānaṃ nirodho atthetanti iti viditvā tassa nissaraṇadassāvī tathāgato tadupātivatto (M.2.229-230).
But though Venerable Ānanda was given such
a broad hint by the Blessed One, such an obvious suggestion, he was unable to
☸ Evampi kho āyasmā ānando bhagavatā oḷārike nimitte kayiramāne oḷārike obhāse kayiramāne nāsakkhi paṭivijjhituṃ (S.5.259).
Illustration: less subtle
Whenever Brahmā Sanaṅkumāra appears to the Tāvatiṃsā
devas, he appears having created (for himself) a less subtle bodily form (oḷārikaṃ
attabhāvaṃ abhinimminitvā) because his natural appearance (pakativaṇṇo)
is not perceptible to the eye
☸ Yadā bhante brahmā sanaṅkumāro devānaṃ tāvatiṃsānaṃ pātubhavati oḷārikaṃ attabhāvaṃ abhinimminitvā pātubhavati. Yo kho pana bhante brahmuno pakativaṇṇo anabhisambhavanīyo so devānaṃ tāvatiṃsānaṃ cakkhupathasmiṃ (D.2.210).
Illustration: less subtle
Hatthaka, the deva’s son, approached the Blessed One, thinking, ‘I will stand in the presence of the Blessed One,’ but he sank down, collapsed, could not stand upright. Just as butter or oil when poured upon sand sinks down, sinks in, cannot abide.
Then the Blessed One told him ‘Create a less
subtle bodily form, Hatthaka’
☸ oḷārikaṃ hatthaka attabhāvaṃ abhinimmināhī ti (A.1.279).
Illustration: less refined
’Poṭṭhapāda, once the bhikkhu is possessed
of that preliminary state of refined awareness, he proceeds from stage to stage
till he reaches the highest state of refined awareness.
☸ Yato kho poṭṭhapāda bhikkhu idha sakasaññī hoti so tato amutra tato amutra anupubbena saññaggaṃ phusati.
Then, remaining in the highest state of
refined awareness it occurs to him, ‘Intentionality is worse for me, being free
of intentionality is better.
☸ Tassa saññagge ṭhitassa evaṃ hoti cetayamānassa me pāpiyo acetayamānassa me seyyo.
If I were to be intent upon or to aim (at anything further), these states of refined awareness that I have attained would cease and less refined states of refined awareness would arise in me. ☸ Ahañceva kho pana ceteyyaṃ abhisaṅkhareyyaṃ imā ca me saññā nirujjheyyuṃ aññā ca oḷārikā saññā uppajjeyyuṃ.
How about if I were not to be intent upon or
to aim (at anything further)?’
☸ Yannūnāhaṃ na ceva ceteyyaṃ na cābhisaṅkhareyyan ti.
So he is neither intent (upon anything),
nor aims (at anything further).
☸ So na ceva ceteti na cābhisaṅkharoti.
And thus in him just these states of
refined awareness cease, and other less refined states of refined awareness do
☸ Tassa acetayato anabhisaṅkharoto tā ceva saññā nirujjhanti aññā ca oḷārikā saññā na uppajjanti.
He attains to the ending (of originated
☸ So nirodhaṃ phusati.
And that, Poṭṭhapāda, is how the ending of
successively refined states of refined awareness is attained in full consciousness.
☸ Evaṃ kho poṭṭhapāda anupubbābhisaññānirodhasampajānasamāpatti hoti (D.1.183-4).
Illustration: not particularly refined
―Moggallāna, friend, your (mental)
faculties are serene, your countenance is pure and bright. Venerable MahāMoggallāna
surely spent today in a peaceful abiding.
☸ vippasannāni kho te āvuso moggallāna indriyāni parisuddho mukhavaṇṇo pariyodāto santena nūnāyasmā mahāmoggallāno ajja vihārena vihāsī’ti
―Friend, I spent the day in a not
particularly refined abiding, but I had some discussion on the teaching (with
the Blessed One).
☸ Oḷārikena kho ahaṃ āvuso ajja vihārena vihāsiṃ. Api ca me ahosi dhammī kathā ti (S.2.275).
Bodhi: “I spent the day in a gross dwelling, friend, but I did have some Dhamma talk.”
It is just as if a man walking fast might ask himself why he is walking fast. Why not walk slowly? Then walking slowly, why not stand? Then standing, why not sit? Then sitting, why not lie down?
• In this way the man would substitute for
each more effortful posture one that was less effortful.
☸ Evaṃ hi so bhikkhave puriso oḷārikaṃ oḷārikaṃ iriyāpathaṃ abhinivajjetvā sukhumaṃ sukhumaṃ iriyāpathaṃ kappeyya (M.1.121).
Illustration: morally unrefined
There are three pathways to happiness
discovered by the Blessed One who knows and sees (the nature of reality), the
second of which is for someone in whom the morally unrefined deeds of body,
speech, and mind are unquelled
☸ oḷārikā kāyasaṅkhārā… vacīsaṅkhārā… cittasaṅkhārā appaṭippassaddhā honti.
Then he hears the noble teaching, and properly contemplates it and practises in conformity with it. By doing so:
• His morally unrefined deeds of body,
speech, and mind are quelled
☸ oḷārikā kāyasaṅkhārā paṭippasasambhanti oḷārikā vacīsaṅkhārā paṭippassambhanti oḷārikā cittasaṅkhārā paṭippassambhanti (D.2.214-5).