Uju; Ujju

Renderings

uju: correct

uju: erect

uju: straight

uju: direct

uju: directly

uju: undeviant

ujuka: standing erect

ujuka: honest

ujuka: direct

ujukaṃ karoti: to purify

ujukaṃ karoti: to straighten up

ujugata: purified

ujugata: spiritually purified

ujugata: correct

ujjugata: bolt upright

ujubhūta: spiritually purified

ujubhūta: purified

Introduction

Uju: straight

The adjective uju means either physically or spiritually straight.

Uju: spiritual purity

Uju sometimes means spiritual purity, because the Mahānāma Sutta (A.3.285) says that when the noble disciple reflects on the Perfect One, his mind is not absorbed in rāga dosa or moha. At that time his mind ‘is made uju’ with the Perfect One as the initiating factor (ujugatamevassa tasmiṃ samaye cittaṃ hoti tathāgataṃ ārabbha (A.3.285).

Uju here means the disciple’s mind is free from rāga dosa and moha, either temporarily or permanently, and uju therefore means ‘purified,’ and the disciple is therefore ‘spiritually purified.’

Ujuka: -ka suffix

The –ka suffix of uju is in accordance with Duroiselle’s observation: ‘Not seldom –ka adds nothing whatever to the primary meaning of a word ’ (PGPL, Para 581). DOP agrees (sv Ujuka and Ka2).

Illustrations

Illustration: ujubhūta, purified

When one has faith in the community of disciples and purified vision (of things according to reality)…
saṅghe pasādo yassatthi ujubhūtañca dassanaṃ (S.5.384).

Illustration: ujubhūta, spiritually purified

To these who are spiritually purified, with a serene mind he should give food, drink, clothing, and furniture and covers.
Annaṃ pānaṃ khādanīyaṃ vatthasenāsanāni ca
Dadeyya ujubhūtesu vippasannena cetasā
(S.1.100).

Illustration: ujjubhūtesu, spiritually purified

Honour those who are spiritually purified
satujjubhūtesu namo karohi (S.1.170).

Illustration: ujubhūto, spiritually purified

This community of bhikkhus is spiritually purified, well-established in penetrative discernment and virtue.
Esa saṅgho ujubhūto paññāsīlasamāhito (A.4.292).

Illustration: ujugata, spiritually purified

Mahānāma, when the noble disciple reflects on the Perfect One, his mind is not absorbed in attachment, hatred, and undiscernment of reality. His mind is spiritually purified at that time with the Perfect One as the initiating factor.
☸ yasmiṃ mahānāma samaye ariyasāvako tathāgataṃ anussarati nevassa tasmiṃ samaye rāgapariyuṭṭhitaṃ cittaṃ hoti na dosapariyuṭṭhitaṃ cittaṃ hoti na mohapariyuṭṭhitaṃ cittaṃ hoti ujugatamevassa tasmiṃ samaye cittaṃ hoti tathāgataṃ ārabbha (A.3.285).

Illustration: ujubhūta, spiritually purified

The bhikkhu whose mind is spiritually purified is glorious
Sobhati vatāyaṃ bhikkhu ujubhūtena cetasā (S.2.279).

Illustration: ujukaṃ akaṃsu, purified

The bhikkhus there are inwardly collected; they have purified their minds.
Tatra bhikkhavo samādahaṃsu cittaṃ attano ujukaṃ akaṃsu (S.1.26).

Illustration: uju, undeviant

In this regard, some person kills living beings; he is ferocious, bloody-handed, intent on injuring and violence, merciless towards living beings
idha bhikkhave ekacco pāṇātipātī hoti luddo lohitapāṇī hatapahate niviṭṭho adayāpanno sabbapāṇabhūtesu

He goes crookedly by way of body, speech, and mind. His conduct of body, speech, and mind are deviant.
☸ so saṃsappati kāyena saṃsappati vācāya saṃsappati manasā tassa jimhaṃ kāyakammaṃ hoti jimhaṃ vacīkammaṃ jimhaṃ manokammaṃ

His destiny is deviant; his rebirth is deviant
☸ jimhā gati jimhupapatti.

There are two possible places of rebirth for one whose destiny and rebirth are deviant: the unmitigated pain of Niraya Hell or the womb of a crooked type of animal
☸ Jimhagatikassa kho panāhaṃ bhikkhave jimhupapattikassa dvinnaṃ gatīnaṃ aññataraṃ gatiṃ vadāmi ye vā ekantadukkhā nirayā yā vā saṃsappajātikā tiracchānayoni
(A.5.289).

Some person abandons killing, lays aside the rod and knife, abiding conscientious, merciful, he abides tenderly concerned for the welfare of all living beings.
pāṇātipātaṃ pahāya pāṇātipātā paṭivirato hoti nihita daṇḍo nihitasattho lajjī dayāpanno sabbapāṇabhūtahitānukampī viharati

He goes uncrookedly by way of body, speech, and mind.
So na saṃsappati kāyena na saṃsappati vācāya na saṃsappati manasā.

His conduct of body, speech, and mind are undeviant.
☸ Tassa ujuṃ kāya kammaṃ hoti ujuṃ vacīkammaṃ ujuṃ mano kammaṃ

His destiny is undeviant; his rebirth is undeviant☸ uju gati ujūpapatti

There are two possible places of rebirth for one whose destiny and rebirth are undeviant: the unmitigated pleasure of heaven, or wealthy families.
ujugatikassa kho panāhaṃ bhikkhave ujūpapattikassa dvinnaṃ gatīnaṃ aññataraṃ gatiṃ vadāmi ye vā ekantasukhā saggā yāni vā pana tāni uccakulāni khattiyamahāsāḷakulāni vā brāhmaṇamahāsāḷakulāni vā gahapati mahāsāḷakulāni vā aḍḍhāni mahaddhanāni mahābhogāni pahūtajātarūparajatāni pahūta cittūpakaraṇāni pahūtadhanadhaññāni (A.5.290).

Illustration: ujugatā, correct

A noble disciple has right perception (of reality), has a perception (of reality) that is correct, has unshakeable faith in the (excellence of the) teaching, and has fathomed this true teaching.
ariyasāvako sammādiṭṭhi hoti ujugatāssa diṭṭhi dhamme aveccappasādena samannāgato āgato imaṃ saddhamman ti (M.1.55).

Illustration: uju, correct

The community of the Blessed One’s disciples is applied to the correct practice,
ujupaṭipanno bhagavato sāvakasaṅgho (S.5.343).

Illustration: ujukā, correct

And what is the basis of spiritually wholesome factors?
ko ca ādi kusalānaṃ dhammānaṃ

Virtue that is well purified and view (of reality) that is correct.
sīlañca suvisuddhaṃ diṭṭhi ca ujukā (S.5.143).

Illustration: ujjugatā, bolt upright

Every one of us is listening to you, bolt upright
Sabbe va te ujjugatā suṇoma (Sn.v.350).

Illustration: ujukā, standing erect

A man wishing to protect a forest grove would tend the well-formed saplings that were standing erect.
tā sālalaṭṭhiyo ujukā sujātā tā sammā parihareyya (M.1.124).

Illustration: ujukaṃ, standing erect

A man might take a sharp axe and enter a forest. There he would see the trunk of a large banana tree, standing erect, young, without a fruit-bud core.
☸ so tattha passeyya mahantaṃ kadalikkhandhaṃ ujukaṃ navaṃ akukkukajātaṃ (S.4.167).

Illustration: ujuṃ, erect

Having washed his feet he seats himself. Having crossed his legs, having set his body erect, having established mindfulness within himself,
☸ so pāde pakkhāletvā nisīdati pallaṅkaṃ ābhujitvā ujuṃ kāyaṃ paṇidhāya parimukhaṃ satiṃ upaṭṭhapetvā (M.2.139).

Illustration: ujuṃ karoti, straighten, straighten up

Like a fletcher straightens an arrow, the wise man straightens up his unsteady, fluttery mind, which is hard to supervise, hard to restrain.
Phandanaṃ capalaṃ cittaṃ durakkhaṃ dunnivārayaṃ
Ujuṃ karoti medhāvī usukāro va tejanaṃ
(Dh.v.33).

Illustration: ujumaggo, direct path

This indeed is the direct path, the straight way, which leads to deliverance (from suffering)
☸ ayameva ujumaggo ayamañjasāyano niyyāniko (D.1.235).

Illustration: ujuko, direct

‘Direct’ is the name of that road (to the Untroubled).
ujuko nāma so maggo (S.1.33).

Illustration: uju, direct

For a disciple in training, following the direct path
sekhassa sikkhamānassa ujumaggānusārino (It.53).

Illustration: uju, directly

The ascetic Suppiyo was in many ways criticising the Buddha, his teaching, and the community of bhikkhus, whereas his young pupil Brahmadatta was in many ways praising them.
suppiyo paribbājako anekapariyāyena buddhassa avaṇṇaṃ bhāsati dhammassa avaṇṇaṃ bhāsati saṅghassa avaṇṇaṃ bhāsati suppiyassa pana paribbājakassa antevāsī brahmadatto māṇavo anekapariyāyena buddhassa vaṇṇaṃ bhāsati dhammassa vaṇṇaṃ bhāsati saṅghassa vaṇṇaṃ bhāsati

And so this pair, teacher and pupil, directly opposing each other’s arguments, followed step-by-step behind the Blessed One and the community of bhikkhus,
☸ Itiha te ubho ācariyantevāsī aññamaññassa ujuvipaccanīkavādā bhagavantaṃ piṭṭhito piṭṭhito anubaddhā honti bhikkhusaṅghañca
(D.1.1).

Illustration: uju, directly

’There are certain ascetics and Brahmanists whose doctrine and dogmatic view is this: There is no complete ending of individual existence’
Santi gahapatayo eke samaṇabrāhmaṇā evaṃ vādino evaṃ diṭṭhino natthi sabbaso bhavanirodho ti.

‘And there are some ascetics and Brahmanists whose doctrine is directly opposed to those ascetics and Brahmanists: ’There is a complete ending of individual existence.’
☸ Tesaṃyeva kho gahapatayo samaṇabrāhmaṇānaṃ eke samaṇabrāhmaṇā ujuvipaccanīkavādā te evamāhaṃsu atthi sabbaso bhavanirodho ti
(M.1.410).

Illustration: ujukaṃ, honest

’If the Blessed One does not know whether the world (of beings) is eternal or not, then, not knowing or seeing, it would be honest of him to simply admit, “I do not know. I do not see.”’
No ce bhagavā jānāti sassato loko ti vā asassato loko ti vā ajānato kho pana apassato etadeva ujukaṃ hoti yadidaṃ na jānāmi na passāmī ti (M.1.428).

Illustration: ujuko, honest

’Here, your reverences, see how honest, straightforward, and aboveboard is the layman Citta.’
idaṃ bhavanto passantu yāva ujuko cāyaṃ citto gahapati yāva asaṭho cāyaṃ citto gahapati yāva amāyāvī cāyaṃ citto gahapati (S.4.298).

Illustration: anujjuko, dishonest

’Here, your reverences, see how dishonest, fraudulent, and deceitful is the layman Citta.’
idaṃ bhavanto passantu yāva anujjuko cāyaṃ citto gahapati yāva saṭho cāyaṃ citto gahapati yāva māyāvī cāyaṃ citto gahapatī ti (S.4.299).