Upeti; Upaya

Renderings

upeti: to be fit for

upeti: to cling

upeti: to enter

upeti: to involve

upeti: to end up

upeti: to amount to

upeti: to come

upeti: to enter

upeti: to approach

upeti: to reach

upeti: to submit

na upeti: to be unanswerable

na upeti: to be unacceptable

na upeti: to be beyond

na upeti: to be not even (=does not amount to)

na upeti saṅkhaṃ: to be beyond the limits of conception

vāsaṃ upeti: to take up residence

upaya: one who is full of attachment

anupayo: one who is free of attachment

upaya: clinging

upaya: involved

Introduction

Upaya

Our renderings for upaya are:

upaya: one who is full of attachment

anupayo: one who is free of attachment

upaya: clinging

upaya: involved

These are supported by the dictionaries to the following extent:

• DOP (sv Upaya):

1) Upaya: (m) going near to, involvement

2) Upaya: (mfn) going to; being involvement

3) Anupaya: (mfn) not going near (to); free from involvement

• PED (sv Upaya):

1) Upaya:  approach, undertaking, taking up; clinging to, attachment

2) Anupaya: not going near, aloof, unattached

3) Rūpūpaya: clinging to form

Illustrations

Illustration: upeti, fit for

Refined gold is malleable, wieldy and radiant. Whatever ornament one wishes to make from it, it would serve the purpose (tañcassa atthaṃ anubhoti, M.3.243).

Unrefined gold is neither malleable, wieldy, or radiant, but brittle, and not properly fit for work (na ca sammā upeti kammāya, S.5.92).

Illustration: upaya, clinging; upeti, cling

So indeed these states, not having been, come into being. Having been, they vanish. He abided not clinging to or rejecting those states, free of attachment, detached, freed, not tethered, inwardly emancipated.
evaṃ kira me dhammā ahutvā sambhonti hutvā paṭiventī ti. So tesu dhammesu anupayo anapāyo anissito appaṭibaddho vippamutto visaṃyutto vimariyādīkatena cetasā viharati (M.3.25).

Illustration: upaya, clinging; upeti, cling

Most of mankind is fastened by clinging, grasping, and stubborn attachment.
Upayupādānābhinivesavinibaddho khvāyaṃ kaccāna loko yebhuyyena

But this one (with right perception (of reality)) does not cling or grasp or doggedly assume (the existence of) “my (absolute) Selfhood” in respect of objects of clinging, grasping, obstinate adherence, stubborn attachment, and identification.
tañcāyaṃ upayupādānaṃ cetaso adhiṭṭhānaṃ abhinivesānusayaṃ na upeti na upādiyati nādhiṭṭhāti attā me ti (S.2.17).

Illustration: upeti, cling

He clings to bodily form, grasps it, and doggedly assumes that bodily form is “my (absolute) Selfhood.”
So rūpaṃ upeti upādiyati adhiṭṭhāti attā me ti (S.3.114).

Illustration: upeti, involve; anupayo, one who is free of attachment; upayaṃ,

The wise man does not involve himself with whatever opinions are commonplace.
Yā kācimā sammutiyo puthujjā sabbāva etā na upeti vidvā

Why would one who is free of attachment become involved?
Anupayo so upayaṃ kimeyya

He takes no delight in what is seen, heard, (sensed, or cognised).
Diṭṭhe sute khantimakubbamāno (Sn.v.897).

Illustration: upayo, one who is full of attachment; upeti, enters

One who is full of attachment enters an argument over doctrines.
Upayo hi dhammesu upeti vādaṃ

But how, and about what, can you argue with one who is free of attachment?
anupayaṃ kena kathaṃ vadeyya

For him there is nothing clung to, and nothing to relinquish.
Attaṃ nirattaṃ na hi tassa atthi

He has shaken off all dogmatic views in this very world.
Adhosi so diṭṭhī-m-idheva sabbanti (Sn.v.787).

Illustration: upayo, one who is full of attachment; upayaṃ, clinging

Bhikkhus, one who is full of attachment is unliberated; one who is free of attachment is liberated.
Upayo bhikkhave avimutto anupayo vimutto

The stream of consciousness while standing, might stand clinging to bodily form; with bodily form as its basis, established on bodily form, with a sprinkling of spiritually fettering delight, it might (egoistically) grow, mature, and develop.
rūpūpayaṃ vā bhikkhave viññāṇaṃ tiṭṭhamānaṃ tiṭṭheyya rūpārammaṇaṃ rūpappatiṭṭhaṃ nandūpasecanaṃ vuddhiṃ virūḷahiṃ vepullaṃ āpajjeyya (S.3.53).

Illustration: upenti, end up in

Having given (alms) again and again, again and again liberal benefactors end up in heaven.
Punappunaṃ dānapatī daditvā punappunaṃ saggamupenti ṭhānaṃ (S.1.174).

Illustration: upeti, ends up

Again and again the fool ends up in a womb
punappunaṃ gabbhamupeti mando (S.1.174).

Illustration: upeti, ends up

Again and again ploughmen plough the field. Again and again rice ends up in the realm.
Punappunaṃ khettaṃ kasanti kassakā punappunaṃ dhaññamupeti raṭṭhaṃ (S.1.174).

Illustration: upeti, ends up

If one such as he ends up going forth (into the ascetic life).
Sace ca pabbajjamupeti tādiso (D.3.147).

Illustration: upeti, ends up

He ends up in a womb in the world beyond
upeti gabbhañca parañca lokaṃ (Th.v.784-5).

Illustration: upeti, end up

A woman ends up in the service of a man
☸ mātugāmo purisassa pāricariyaṃ upeti (S.4.239).

Illustration: upeti, end up

One who gives the best ends up in the best place
seṭṭhandado seṭṭhamupeti ṭhānaṃ (A.3.51).

Illustration: upeti, amount to

The speck of dust the Blessed One has placed on the tip of his fingernail in a comparison with the great earth, does not amount to a hundredth, or a thousandth, or a hundred thousandth part.
neva satimaṃ kalaṃ upeti na sahassimaṃ kalaṃ upeti na satasahassimaṃ kalaṃ upeti mahāpaṭhaviṃ upanidhāya bhagavatā paritto nakhasikhāya paṃsu āropito ti (S.2.133).

Illustration: upeti, come

Some ascetics and Brahmanists say that perception is a person’s (absolute) Selfhood which comes and goes.
Saññā hi bho purisassa attā sā ca kho upeti pi apeti pi

When it comes, one is conscious, when it goes one is unconscious.
Yasmiṃ samaye upeti saññī tasmiṃ samaye hoti. Yasmiṃ samaye apeti asaññī tasmiṃ samaye hotī ti (D.1.180).

Illustration: upeti, come

King Vessavaṇo Kuvero came to see you, asking about the teaching.
Rājāpi taṃ vessavaṇo kuvero upeti dhammaṃ paripucchamāno (Sn.v.380).

Illustration: upeti, enter

However, a sage does not enter a dispute that has arisen,
Vādañca jātaṃ muni no upeti

Therefore he is free of hardheartedness in every respect.
Tasmā muni natthi khilo kuhiñci (Sn.v.780).

Illustration: upeti, approach

Again and again dairymen draw milk. Again and again the calf approaches its mother.
Punappunaṃ khīranikā duhanti punappunaṃ vaccho upeti mātaraṃ (S.1.174).

Illustration: upeti, approach

Whether walking, standing, sitting, or lying down, your last day approaches. There is no time for you to be negligently applied (to the practice).
☸ Carato tiṭṭhato vāpi āsīnasayanassa vā
Upeti carimā ratti na te kālo pamajjitun ti
(Th.v.452).

Illustration: upeti, reach

Having failed to understand the teaching clearly in this world, one reaches death, having not overcome one’s unsureness (about the excellence of the teaching).
Idheva dhammaṃ avibhāvayitvā avitiṇṇakaṅkho maraṇaṃ upeti (Sn.v.318).

Illustration: upeti, reaches

Even the gaily coloured chariots of kings decay; and the body, too, reaches old age.
Jīranti ve rājarathā sucittā atho sarīrampi jaraṃ upeti (S.1.71).

Illustration: upeti, reach

He reaches the residence on the first day of the lunar fortnight
Pāṭipade vihāraṃ upeti (Vin.1.154).

Illustration: upeti, submit

‘It would be wonderful to ride the elephant if he would submit to training.’
Bhaddakaṃ vata bho hatthiyānaṃ sace damathaṃ upeyyā ti (M.3.173-4).

Illustration: upeti, submit

’But, Kesi, if a horse-in-training won’t submit to mild discipline, nor harsh discipline, nor mild and harsh discipline, how do you deal with him?’
Sace te kesi assadammo saṇhenapi vinayaṃ na upeti pharusenapi vinayaṃ na upeti saṇhapharusenapi vinayaṃ na upeti kinti naṃ karosī ti (A.2.112).

Illustration: na upeti saṅkhaṃ is beyond the limits of conception

Just as a flame tossed about by the force of the wind vanishes, and is beyond the limits of conception, so a sage liberated from denomination-and-body vanishes, and is beyond the limits of conception.
Acci yathā vātavegena khittā atthaṃ paleti na upeti saṅkhaṃ;
Evaṃ muni nāmakāyā vimutto atthaṃ paleti na upeti saṅkhaṃ
(Sn.v.1074).

Comment:

Explained two verses later as follows:

There is no measuring of one who has vanished. That no longer exists in relation to which one might speak of him. When all points of reference are removed, then all ways of talking about him are also removed.
Atthaṅgatassa na pamāṇamatthi yena naṃ vajjuṃ taṃ tassa natthi
Sabbesu dhammesu samūhatesu samūhatā vādapathā pi sabbe ti
(Sn.v.1076).

Illustration: na upeti saṅkhaṃ, is beyond the limits of conception

The sage seeing the end of birth and destruction, abandoning speculation, is beyond the limits of conception.
Sa ve muni jātikhayantadassī takkaṃ pahāya na upeti saṅkhaṃ (Sn.v.209).

Illustration: na upeti saṅkhaṃ, is beyond the limits of conception

The one who is blessed with profound knowledge, being established in righteousness, though he makes use of conception he is beyond the limits of conception.
Sa ce akkheyyasampanno santo santipade rato
Saṅkhāya sevī dhammaṭṭho saṅkhaṃ nopeti vedagū ti
(It.53).

Illustration: vāsaṃ upeti, take up residence

In whatever region the Wheel Treasure pauses, there the Wheel-turning monarch takes up residence with his army with its four divisions.
Yasmiṃ kho pana bhikkhave padese cakkaratanaṃ patiṭṭhāti tatra rājā cakkavattī vāsaṃ upeti saddhiṃ caturaṅginiyā senāya (M.3.172).

Illustration: vāsaṃ upeti, take up residence

I have a rest house… When any ascetic or Brahmanist take up residence there, I share it with him to the best of my ability and strength.
atthi me bhante āvasathāgāraṃ… tattha yo samaṇo vā brāhmaṇo vā vāsaṃ upeti tenāhaṃ yathāsatti yathābalaṃ saṃvibhajāmi (S.4.348).

Illustration: na upeti, is unacceptable

’”If we get this, we will do it; if not, we won’t”: even in relation to teachers bent on worldly benefits, inheritors of worldly benefits, engrossed in worldly benefits, such haggling by disciples is unacceptable. So what about the Perfect One who abides completely aloof from worldly benefits?’
Yopi so bhikkhave satthā āmisagaru āmisadāyādo āmisehi saṃsaṭṭho viharati tassapayaṃ evarūpī paṇopaṇaviyā na upeti. Evañca no assa atha naṃ kareyyāma. Na ca no evamassa na naṃ kareyyāmā ti. Kimpana bhikkhave yaṃ tathāgato sabbaso āmisehi visaṃsaṭṭho viharati (M.1.480).

Illustration: na upeti, is unanswerable

―’Master Gotama, for a bhikkhu whose mind is thus liberated (from perceptually obscuring states), where is he reborn?’
Evaṃ vimuttacitto pana bho gotama bhikkhu kuhiṃ upapajjatī ti

―’The question ”Is he reborn?” is unanswerable, Vaccha’
Upapajjatī ti kho vaccha na upeti

―’Then is he not reborn, Master Gotama?’
Tena hi bho gotama na upapajjatī ti

―’The question ”Is he not reborn?” is unanswerable, Vaccha’
Na upapajjatī ti kho vaccha na upeti (M.1.486).

Illustration: na upeti, is unanswerable

―’But if asked in which direction the fire went―to the east or west or north or south―how would you answer?’
so aggi ito katamaṃ disaṃ gato puratthimaṃ vā pacchimaṃ vā uttaraṃ vā dakkhiṇaṃ vā ti. Evaṃ puṭṭho tvaṃ vaccha kinti vyākareyyāsī ti

―’The question is unanswerable, Master Gotama. A fire blazes because of its firing of grass and sticks. When this is exhausted, and no more is brought to it, then being without fuel, it is simply reckoned as extinguished.’
Na upeti bho gotama. Yaṃ hi so gotama aggi tiṇakaṭṭhūpādānaṃ paṭicca ajali tassa ca pariyādānā aññassa ca anupahārā anāhāro nibbuto’teva saṅkhaṃ gacchatī ti (M.1.487).

Illustration: na upeti, is unanswerable

The Perfect One is liberated from being reckoned in terms of bodily form, great king.
Rūpasaṅkhaya vimutto kho mahārāja tathāgato

He is profound, immeasurable, unfathomable like the ocean
gambhīro appameyyo appariyogāho seyyathā pi mahāsamuddo

• The question, ‘Does a Perfect One continue to exist after death?’ is unanswerable
hoti tathāgato parammaraṇā ti pi na upeti

• ‘The question, ‘Does a Perfect One not continue to exist after death?’ is unanswerable
na hoti tathāgato parammaraṇā ti pi na upeti

• The question, ‘Does a Perfect One both continue and not continue to exist after death?’ is unanswerable.
hoti ca na ca hoti tathāgato parammaraṇā ti pi na upeti

• The question, ‘Does a Perfect One neither continue nor not continue to exist after death?’ is unanswerable.
neva hoti na na hoti tathāgato parammaraṇā ti pi na upeti (S.4.376).

Illustration: na upeti, is beyond; is not even (=does not amount to)

’Bhante, this small stone is insignificant in comparison to the Himalayas, the king of mountain ranges,
Appamatto kho ayaṃ bhante bhagavatā paritto pāṇimatto pāsāṇo gahito himavantaṃ pabbatarājānaṃ upanidhāya

… the difference is beyond reckoning
saṅkhampi na upeti

… it is not even a fraction
kalabhāgampi na upeti

… it is beyond comparison
upanidhimpi na upetī ti (M.3.166).

Illustration: na upeti, is beyond; is not even (=does not amount to)

Nanda said his bride-to-be, the most beautiful girl in the land, in comparison with a group of five hundred heavenly nymphs was like a mutilated she-monkey with severed ears and nose.
Seyyathā pi bhante paluṭṭhamakkaṭī kaṇṇanāsacchinnā evameva kho bhante sākiyānī janapadakalyāṇī imesaṃ pañcannaṃ accharāsatānaṃ upanidhāya

He said:

The difference was beyond reckoning
saṅkhampi na upeti

It is not even a fraction
kalampi na upeti

It is not even the tiniest fraction
kalabhāgampi na upeti

It is beyond comparison
upanidhimpi na upeti (Ud.22-3).