aññāya: having understood

aññāya: having realised

aññāya: having learned

aññāya: realising

aññāya: knowing

aññāya: understanding


Aññāya: ‘absolutive’

Aññāya is the absolutive of ājānāti (and also the instrumental of aññā, not covered here).Collins says absolutives have also been called gerunds or indeclinable participles, but says that none of these terms are entirely appropriate (Pāli Grammar for Students). PED uses the term ‘gerund.’ But ‘absolutive’ is now the term of choice by the Pāli Text Society. Calling it ‘gerund’ was always inexplicable.

We deal with ājānāti separately, sv Ājānāti.

The absolutive: Duroiselle

Duroiselle says:

• the absolutive always denotes an action completed before another, and may be translated:

1) by the word ‘having’ followed by a past participle, as gantvā, having gone; or

2) by the past tense followed by the conjunction ‘and’: gantvā, he went and…’:

For example:

• He lifted it up, took it home, divided it into four parts and, practising almsgiving and other good deeds, went according to his deeds.
So taṃ ukkhipitvā gharaṃ netvā catudhā vibhajitvā dānādīni puññāni katvā yathākammaṃ gato. (PGPL, para 618).

Duroiselle translates katvā as a present participle (‘practising’) but stays true to the rule that ‘the absolutive always denotes an action completed before another.’ But he should have said ‘usually denotes’ because he then admits that idha āgantvā ahaṃ coraṃ passiṃ can be rendered ‘Coming here I saw the thief’ (PGPL, para 618 (vi).


Illustration: aññāya, having understood

It seems as if he is planing [the wood] having understood my mind with his mind.
hadayā hadayaṃ maññe aññāya tacchatī ti (M.1.32).

Illustration: aññāya, having understood

Having understood all objects of attachment, and not desiring any of them, that sage, free of greed, greedless, does not strain himself, for he has reached the Far Shore.
Aññāya sabbāni nivesanāni anikāmayaṃ aññatarampi tesaṃ
Sa ve muni vītagedho agiddho nāyūhatī pāragato hi hoti

Illustration: aññāya, having understood

Having understood the world [of phenomena]
Aññāya lokaṃ (Sn.v.219).

Illustration: aññāya, having realised

Having realised the [Untroubled] State, having understood the teaching
Aññāya padaṃ samecca dhammaṃ (Sn.v.374).


We take padaṃ as nibbānapada, as in Sn.v.365.

Illustration: aññāya, having learned

I learned the teaching of the ascetic disciples of the Sakyans’ Son. Having learned the teaching of the ascetic disciples of the Sakyans’ Son I left that teaching and training system.
aññāto mayā samaṇānaṃ sakyaputtiyānaṃ dhammo. Aññāya ca panā’haṃ samaṇānaṃ sakyaputtiyānaṃ dhammaṃ evāhaṃ tasmā dhammavinayā apakkanto ti (A.1.185).

Illustration: aññāya, having learned

Whatever bhikkhunī without having obtained permission from the community of bhikkhunīs which carried out the proceedings in accordance with the rule, the discipline, the Teacher’s word, not having learned the group’s desire (anaññāya gaṇassa chandaṃ), should restore a bhikkhunī suspended by a complete assembly of bhikkhunīs, that bhikkhunī has fallen into a matter that is a foremost offence entailing a formal meeting of the community of bhikkhunīs involving being sent away (Vin.4.231).

Illustration: aññāya, have realised

Those who have realised the Unoriginated State… have attained the heart of the teaching.
Ye etadaññāya padaṃ asaṅkhataṃ… te dhammasārādhigamā (It.39).

Illustration: aññāya, realising

A bhikkhu investigates the meaning of the teachings he has retained in mind.
☸ dhatānañca dhammānaṃ atthūpaparikkhitā hoti

Realising their meaning and significance, he practises in accordance with the teaching.
☸ atthamaññāya dhammamaññāya dhammānudhammapaṭipanno ca hoti

Illustration: aññāya, knowing

Knowing my reflection, the Teacher, unsurpassed in the world, through his psychic power approached me with a mind-made body.
Mama saṅkappamaññāya satthā loke anuttaro
Manomayena kāyena iddhiyā upasaṅkami

Illustration: aññāya, understanding

Then, understanding this teaching, scrutinising it, a bhikkhu should train himself in it ever mindfully
Etañca dhammamaññāya vicinaṃ bhikkhu sadā sato sikkhe (Sn.v.933).