Uddhacca; Uddhata

Renderings

uddhacca: restlessness

uddhata: restless

uddhacca: agitation

uddhata: agitated

uddhacca: vanity

uddhata: vain

dhammuddhacca: righteous disquietude

Introduction

The problem of uddhacca

The problem of uddhacca is illustrated in Bodhi’s rendering of uddhacca, both the fourth hindrance and the ninth fetter, as ‘restlessness,’ and Norman’s rendering both cases as ‘conceit’ (e.g. Thī.v.167, Th.v.1010, Th.v.760).

Strangely, DOP does not recognise ‘conceit’ for uddhacca in spite of accepting ‘puffed up’ for uddhata, and acknowledging that uddhacca is derived from uddhata.

The problem with restlessness

The five hindrances are hindrances to samādhi, and non-returners have perfect samādhi (samādhismiṃ paripūrakārī hoti, A.1.232) which implies that the five hindrances including uddhacca are insignificant in non-returners. And yet non-returners are still troubled by uddhacca the ninth fetter. So the two forms of uddhacca must be different, and it is unlikely that the restlessness of the fourth hindrance is also the ninth fetter.

The problem with conceit

But Norman’s suggestion is also problematic, because it implies that the hindrance to first jhāna would remain active until arahantship, when the ninth tie to individual existence is finally abandoned. Unless conceit can be temporarily quelled like lust and hatred, first jhāna would only be available to arahants. So again, uddhacca must have two meanings.

Double meanings of uddhata and capala

Part of the confusion is that both uddhata and capala which frequently occur together, have double meanings, as follows:

Grouping 1:

uddhata: restless

capala: fidgety/fluttery

Grouping 2:

uddhata: vain

capala: puffed up

Uddhata and capala: illustrated

The meanings of uddhacca and capala can be illustrated as follows:

1) uddhata:restless

• When one’s mind is restless it is timely to develop the enlightenment factors of tranquillity, inward collectedness, and detached awareness.
Yasmiṃ bhikkhave samaye uddhataṃ cittaṃ hoti kālo tasmiṃ samaye passaddhisambojjhaṅgassa bhāvanāya… (S.5.115).

2) capala:fluttery

• Like a fletcher straightens an arrow, the wise man straightens up his unsteady, fluttery mind, which is hard to supervise, hard to restrain.
Phandanaṃ capalaṃ cittaṃ durakkhaṃ dunnivārayaṃ
Ujuṃ karoti medhāvī usukāro va tejanaṃ
(Dh.v.33).

3) uddhato:vain; capalo: puffed up

• A vain, puffed up bhikkhu clothed in rag-robes does not look glorious because of it. He is like a monkey in a lion-skin.
☸ Uddhato capalo bhikkhu paṃsukūlena pāruto
Kapīva sīhacammena na so tenupasobhati
(Th.v.1080).

4) uddhato:vain; capalo: puffed up

• Because of improper contemplation I was addicted to finery. I was vain, puffed up, and afflicted by lust for sensuous pleasure.
Ayoniso manasikārā maṇḍanaṃ anuyuñjisaṃ
Uddhato capalo cāsiṃ kāmarāgena aṭṭito
(Th.v.157).

Dutiya Anuruddha Sutta: tranquility and peace are not ‘restlessness’

An interesting muddle occurs in the Dutiya Anuruddha Sutta (A.1.282), where Venerable Anuruddha complained about his slowness in attaining arahantship in spite of outstanding spiritual qualities. Venerable Sāriputta told him:

• ’Anuruddha, when you say “With purified divine vision surpassing that of men, I survey the thousandfold multi-universe system,” that is your self-centredness (māna).
Yaṃ kho te āvuso anuruddha evaṃ hoti: evāhaṃ dibbena cakkhunā visuddhena atikkantamānusakena sahassaṃ lokaṃ olokemī ti idante mānasmiṃ.

… ‘When you say “My unflagging energy is aroused, unmuddled mindfulness is established, my body is tranquil and peaceful, my mind is collected and concentrated,” that is your vanity (uddhacca).
Yampi te āvuso anuruddha evaṃ hoti: āraddhaṃ kho pana me viriyaṃ asallīnaṃ upaṭṭhitā sati apammuṭṭhā passaddho kāyo asāraddho samāhitaṃ cittaṃ ekaggan ti idante uddhaccasmiṃ

… ‘When you say “But for all that my mind is not liberated from perceptually obscuring states through being without grasping,” that is your fretting (kukkucca).
Yampi te āvuso anuruddha evaṃ hoti atha ca pana me na anupādāya āsavehi cittaṃ vimuccatī ti idante kukkuccasmiṃ (A.1.282).

It makes little sense to say that claiming one’s body is tranquil and peaceful can be explained as restlessness (uddhacca), as Bodhi puts it. DOP’s suggestion ‘puffed up’ is preferable, using ‘vanity’ as the noun for ‘puffed-upness.’

Causes of the fourth hindrance

The causes of uddhacca, the fourth hindrance,are:

1) Excessive exertion: if a meditator focuses excessively on the practice of effort, it leads to restlessness (ekantaṃ paggahanimittaññeva manasikareyya ṭhānaṃ taṃ cittaṃ uddhaccāya saṃvatteyya). The suttas say it is like a goldsmith who, if he blows too much on molten gold will simply burn it up.

2) No inward collectedness: Just as the goldsmith should sprinkle gold with water to keep it cool, the meditator should from time to time focus on the practice of inward collectedness (kālena kālaṃ samādhinimittaṃ manasikātabbaṃ) (A.1.256) or inward peacefulness (cetaso vūpasamo) (S.5.106) because this removes restlessness (uddhaccassa pahānāya samatho bhāvetabbo) (A.3.449).

3) Argumentative speech(viggāhikakathaṃ): this leads to overtalkativeness (kathābāhullaṃ). With overtalkativeness comes restlessness (kathābāhulle sati uddhaccaṃ) (A.4.87).

Agitation

Occasionally uddhacca means ‘agitation’, not restlessness. For example, the Buddha said a bhikkhu should visit families in a humble manner, lest he be embarrassed if he receives nothing:

• And so, from getting nothing, he becomes embarrassed
☸ Itissa alābhena maṅkubhāvo
.

… Being embarrassed, he becomes agitated
maṅkubhūtassa uddhaccaṃ.

… Being agitated, his sense faculties are unrestrained (from grasping, through mindfulness)
uddhatassa asaṃvaro (A.4.87).

Righteous disquietude: dhammuddhacca

One form of uddhacca is called righteous disquietude (dhammuddhacca). It comprises the fourth path to arahantship. The first three paths are:

• insightfulness preceded by inward calm
samathapubbaṅgamaṃ vipassanaṃ

• inward calm preceded by insightfulness
vipassanāpubbaṅgamaṃ samathaṃ

• inward calm together with insightfulness
samathavipassanaṃ yuganaddhaṃ

The fourth path is described as follows:

• Or a bhikkhu’s mind is seized by righteous disquietude
bhikkhuno dhammuddhaccaviggahītaṃ mānaṃ hoti

… But there comes a time when his mind becomes settled, calm, concentrated, and collected.
so samayo yantaṃ cittaṃ ajjhattaṃyeva santiṭṭhati sannisīdati ekodi hoti samādhiyati.

… In him the path is born
tassa maggo sañjāyati (A.2.157).

Therefore dhammuddhacca is abandoned at stream-entry when the path is born, because:

• One possessed of this noble eightfold path, bhante, is called a stream-enterer.
Yo hi bhante iminā ariyena aṭṭhaṅgikena maggena samannāgato ayaṃ vuccati sotāpanno (S.5.348).

Dhammuddhacca: a synonym for saṃvega

Dhammuddhacca is perhaps a synonym for saṃvega. It could therefore be illustrated by this account of practice:

• Seeing sensuous pleasures as (dangerous as) a blazing (grass torch being carried against the wind), and gold pieces as (dangerous as a sharp) knife, and life from the time of conception as suffering, and great danger in the (possibility of the) hells,
Kāme ādittato disvā jātarūpāni satthato
Gabbhavokkantito dukkhaṃ nirayesu mahabbhayaṃ.

… Recognising this danger, I was filled with an earnest attitude (to the practice).
Etamādīnavaṃ ñatvā saṃvegaṃ alabhiṃ tadā

… I was quickened then peaceful. I have accomplished the destruction of perceptually obscuring states.
Sohaṃ viddho tadā santo sampatto āsavakkhayaṃ (Th.v.790-1).

COMMENT

Norman has said (Elders’ Verses note 791) that ‘it is possible that viddha is the equivalent of vyathita, the past participle of vyath– “shaken.” The context supports us treating it as standing for the past participle of saṃvijjati, to be quickened.

Illustrations

Illustration: uddhacca, restlessness; anuddhato, not restless

Abandoning restlessness and anxiety, he abides not restless, with a mind inwardly at peace. He purifies his mind of restlessness and anxiety.
uddhaccakukkuccaṃ pahāya anuddhato viharati ajjhattaṃ vūpasantacitto. Uddhaccakukkuccā cittaṃ parisodheti (M.1.521).

Illustration: uddhaccāya, restlessness

If one’s energy is excessive it leads to restlessness; if too lax it leads to indolence.
accāraddhaṃ viriyaṃ uddhaccāya saṃvattati atilīnaṃ viriyaṃ kosajjāya saṃvattati (A.3.376).

Illustration: uddhacca, restlessness

There is inward unpeacefulness. Much improper contemplation in that regard is a condition that nourishes both the arising of unarisen restlessness and anxiety, and the increase and expansion of arisen restlessness and anxiety.
Atthi bhikkhave cetaso avūpasamo. Tattha ayoniso manasikārabahulīkāro ayamāhāro anuppannassa vā uddhaccakukkuccassa uppādāya uppannassa vā uddhaccakukkuccassa bhiyyobhāvāya vepullāya.

There is inward peacefulness. Much proper contemplation in that regard is not a condition that nourishes either the arising of unarisen restlessness and anxiety, or the increase and expansion of arisen restlessness and anxiety.
Atthi bhikkhave cetaso vūpasamo. Tattha yoniso manasikārabahulīkāro ayamanāhāro anuppannassa vā uddhaccakukkuccassa uppādāya uppannassa vā uddhaccakukkuccassa bhiyyobhāvāya vepullāya (S.5.105-6).

Illustration: uddhacca, restlessness

And what is investigation that is too lax?
atilīnā vīmaṃsā

It is investigation accompanied by indolence, conjoined with indolence. This is called investigation that is too lax.
yā bhikkhave vīmaṃsā kosajjasahagatā kosajjasampayuttā. Ayaṃ vuccati bhikkhave atilīnā vīmaṃsā.

And what is investigation that is too strained?
atipaggahitā vīmaṃsā

It is investigation accompanied by restlessness, conjoined with restlessness. This is called investigation that is too strained.
yā bhikkhave vīmaṃsā uddhaccasahagatā uddhaccasampayuttā. Ayaṃ vuccati bhikkhave atipaggahitā vīmaṃsā (S.5.280).

Illustration: uddhacca, restlessness

Suppose, brahman, there is a bowl of water stirred by wind. If a clear-sighted man were to examine his facial reflection in it, he would neither discern nor see it according to reality.

So too, brahman, when one dwells with a mind absorbed in and overcome by restlessness and anxiety, and does not discern according to reality the deliverance from the arisen restlessness and anxiety, one does not know or see either one’s own well-being, or that of others, or that of both.
yasmiṃ samaye uddhaccakukkuccapariyuṭṭhitena cetasā viharati uddhaccakukkuccaparetena uppannassa ca uddhaccakukkuccassa nissaraṇaṃ yathābhūtaṃ nappajānāti (S.5.123-4).

Illustration: uddhataṃ, restless

When one’s mind is restless (uddhataṃ cittaṃ) it is timely to develop the enlightenment factors of tranquillity, inward collectedness, and detached awareness.
Yasmiṃ bhikkhave samaye uddhataṃ cittaṃ hoti kālo tasmiṃ samaye passaddhisambojjhaṅgassa bhāvanāyasamādhisambojjhaṅgassa… upekkhāsambojjhaṅgassa bhāvanāya

For what reason? Because the mind is restless and it is easy to calm it with those things
uddhataṃ bhikkhave cittaṃ. Taṃ etehi dhammehi suvūpasamaṃ hoti (S.5.115).

Illustration: uddhatā, restless

These people say, “We are study bhikkhus, we are study bhikkhus,’ but they are restless, frivolous, fidgety, talkative, garrulous, unmindful, not fully conscious, inwardly uncollected, mentally scattered, (and are dwelling with) their sense faculties unrestrained (from grasping, through mindfulness).
ime pana dhammayogamhā dhammayogamhā ti uddhatā unnaḷā capalā mukharā vikiṇṇavācā muṭṭhassatī asampajānā asamāhitā vibbhantacittā pākatindriyā (A.3.355).

Illustration: uddhaccaṃ, agitated

When there is contentious talk, an excess of words can be expected. When there is an excess of words, one becomes agitated. When one is agitated, one’s sense faculties are unrestrained (from grasping, through mindfulness).
Viggāhikāya moggallāna kathāya sati kathābāhullaṃ pāṭikaṅkhaṃ. Kathābāhulle sati uddhaccaṃ. Uddhatassa asaṃvaro (S.4.87).

Illustration: uddhaccaṃ, vanity

Bhikkhus, there are these five ties to individual existence in the middle and high planes of existence. What five?
pañcimāni bhikkhave uddhambhāgiyāni saṃyojanāni. katamāni pañca?

• attachment to the refined material states of awareness
☸ rūparāgo

• attachment to immaterial states of awareness
☸ arūparāgo

• self-centredness
☸ māno

• vanity
☸ uddhaccaṃ

• uninsightfulness into reality
☸ avijjā
(S.5.61-62).

Illustration: uddhaccasmiṃ, vanity

―’Anuruddha, friend, when you say “With purified divine vision surpassing that of men, I survey the thousandfold multi-universe system,” that is your self-centredness.
Yaṃ kho te āvuso anuruddha evaṃ hoti: evāhaṃ dibbena cakkhunā visuddhena atikkantamānusakena sahassaṃ lokaṃ olokemī ti idante mānasmiṃ.

‘When you say “My unflagging energy is aroused, unmuddled mindfulness is established, my body is tranquil and peaceful, my mind is collected and concentrated,” that is your vanity.
Yampi te āvuso anuruddha evaṃ hoti: āraddhaṃ kho pana me viriyaṃ asallīnaṃ upaṭṭhitā sati apammuṭṭhā passaddho kāyo asāraddho samāhitaṃ cittaṃ ekaggan ti idante uddhaccasmiṃ

‘When you say “But for all that my mind is not liberated from perceptually obscuring states through being without grasping,” that is your fretting.
Yampi te āvuso anuruddha evaṃ hoti atha ca pana me na anupādāya āsavehi cittaṃ vimuccatī ti idante kukkuccasmiṃ (A.1.282).

Illustration: uddhato, vain

A vain, puffed up bhikkhu clothed in rag-robes does not look glorious because of it. He is like a monkey in a lion-skin.
☸ Uddhato capalo bhikkhu paṃsukūlena pāruto
Kapīva sīhacammena na so tenupasobhati
(Th.v.1080).

One who is not vain or puffed up, who is mindful, whose sense faculties are restrained (from grasping, through mindfulness), looks glorious in rag-robes. He is like a lion in a mountain cave.
Anuddhato acapalo nipako saṃvutindriyo
Sobhati paṃsukūlena sīho va girigabbhare
(Th.v.1081).

Illustration: uddhatā, vain

They will be vain, clothed in blue robes, deceitful, puffed up, talkative, and haughty. They will live the religious life as though they were Noble Ones.
☸ Uddhatā ca bhavissanti nīlacīvarapārutā
Kuhā thaddhā lapā siṅgī carissantyariyā viya
(Th.v.958).

Illustration: uddhato, vain

Because of improper contemplation I was addicted to finery. I was vain, puffed up, and afflicted by lust for sensuous pleasure.
☸ Ayoniso manasikārā maṇḍanaṃ anuyuñjisaṃ
Uddhato capalo cāsiṃ kāmarāgena aṭṭito
(Th.v.157).