Opanayika

Renderings

opanayika: personally applicable

opanayika: personally significant

attūpanāyikaṃ: with reference to oneself

attūpanāyikaṃ: involving comparison with oneself

Introduction

Fit for bringing near

Opanayika has long been rendered as ‘leading onward’ or ‘leading to salvation.’ But DOP says it means ‘fit for bringing near, for taking to oneself; fit for making use of; deserving to be used,’ and says it is derived from upanaya, which means ‘bringing near; bringing near (to death); application.’

Applicable

Bodhi renders opanayika as ‘applicable’ in accordance with the Visuddhimagga (Vism.217) where he says ‘the word is glossed by the gerundive upanetabba, “to be brought near, to be applied”’ (CDB p.353 n.33).

Personally applicable; personally significant

The scriptures use opanayika in two situations:

1) Firstly, regarding the teachings, where we call it ‘personally applicable.’ See Illustrations.

2) Secondly, regarding the elimination of attachment (rāga) and of previous karmically consequential conduct (purāṇañca kammaṃ). The text says the elimination of attachment and previous karmically consequential conduct is opanayikā. But ‘elimination’ cannot rationally be called ‘applicable,’ so we say ‘personally significant.’ This is in accordance with DOP’s ‘fit for taking to oneself; deserving to be used.’

• He undertakes no new karmically consequential conduct; as to previous karmically consequential conduct, he nullifies it by the gradual experience (of its consequences). Its elimination is discernable in this lifetime, realisable in the here and now, intriguing, personally significant, to be realised by the wise for themselves.
So navañca kammaṃ na karoti. Purāṇañca kammaṃ phussa phussa vyantīkaroti. Sandiṭṭhikā nijjarā akālikā ehipassikā opanayikā paccattaṃ veditabbā viññūhī’ti (A.1.221).

Attūpanāyiko: with/through reference to oneself

Attūpanāyiko means either:

1) ‘with reference to oneself,’ or

2) ‘involving comparison with oneself.’

See Illustrations.

Illustrations

Illustration: opanayiko, personally applicable

On what grounds is the teaching fathomable in this lifetime, realisable in the here and now, intriguing, personally applicable, to be realised by the wise for themselves?
kittāvatā nu kho bhante sandiṭṭhiko dhammo hoti akāliko ehipassiko opanayiko paccattaṃ veditabbo viññūhī ti?

In this regard, in seeing a visible object via the visual sense a bhikkhu experiences the visible object and the attachment to the visible object. When there is attachment to visible objects in him, he discerns: ‘There is attachment to visible objects in me.’
Idhūpavāṇa bhikkhu cakkhunā rūpaṃ disvā rūpapaṭisaṃvedī ca hoti rūparāgapaṭisaṃvedī ca. Santañca ajjhattaṃ rūpesu rāgaṃ atthi me ajjhattaṃ rūpesu rāgo ti pajānāti yantaṃ upavāṇa bhikkhu cakkhunā rūpaṃ disvā rūpapaṭisaṃvedī ca hoti rūparāgapaṭisaṃvedī ca santañca ajjhattaṃ rūpesu rāgaṃ atthi me ajjhattaṃ rūpesu rāgo ti pajānāti.

On these grounds is the teaching fathomable in this lifetime, realisable in the here and now, intriguing, personally applicable, to be realised by the wise for themselves.
Evampi kho upavāṇa sandiṭṭhiko dhammo hoti akāliko ehipassiko opanayiko paccattaṃ veditabbo viññūhi (S.4.41).

Illustration: opanayiko, personally applicable

On what grounds is the teaching fathomable in this lifetime, realisable in the here and now, intriguing, personally applicable, to be realised by the wise for themselves?
sandiṭṭhiko dhammo sandiṭṭhiko dhammo’ti bho gotama vuccati kittāvatā nu kho bho gotama sandiṭṭhiko dhammo hoti akāliko ehipassiko opanayiko paccattaṃ veditabbo viññūhī ti.

One who is attached, overpowered, and overcome by attachment, is intent upon his own harm, upon the harm of others, upon the harm of both, and so experiences psychological pain and dejection.
Ratto kho brāhmaṇa rāgena abhibhūto pariyādinnacitto attavyābādhāyapi ceteti paravyābādhāyapi ceteti ubhayavyābādhāyapi ceteti. Cetasikampi dukkhaṃ domanassaṃ paṭisaṃvedeti.

But if attachment be abandoned he is not intent upon his own harm, upon the harm of others, upon the harm of both, and thus does not experience psychological pain and dejection.
Rāge pahīṇe nevattavyābādhāyapi ceteti. Na paravyābādhāyapi ceteti na ubhayavyābādhāyapi ceteti. Na cetasikaṃ dukkhaṃ domanassaṃ paṭisaṃvedeti.

One who is attached, overpowered, and overcome by attachment, misconducts himself by way of body, speech, and mind. But if attachment be abandoned he does not do so.
Ratto kho brāhmaṇa rāgena abhibhūto pariyādinnacitto kāyena duccaritaṃ carati vācāya duccaritaṃ carati manasā duccaritaṃ carati rāge pahīṇe neva kāyena duccaritaṃ carati na vācāya duccaritaṃ carati na manasā duccaritaṃ carati.

One who is attached, overpowered, and overcome by attachment, does not discern according to reality his own well-being, nor that of others, nor that of both himself and others. But if attachment be abandoned he discerns this.
Ratto kho brāhmaṇa rāgena abhibhūto pariyādinnacitto attatthampi yathābhūtaṃ nappajānāti paratthampi yathābhūtaṃ nappajānāti ubhayatthampi yathābhūtaṃ nappajānāti. Rāge pahīṇe attatthampi yathābhūtaṃ pajānāti paratthampi yathābhūtaṃ pajānāti ubhayatthampi yathābhūtaṃ pajānāti.

On these grounds is the teaching fathomable in this lifetime, realisable in the here and now, intriguing, personally applicable, to be realised by the wise for themselves.
Evampi kho brāhmaṇa sandiṭṭhiko dhammo hoti akāliko ehipassiko opanayiko paccattaṃ veditabbo viññūhī’ti (A.1.157-8).

Illustration: opanayikā, personally significant

There are, headman, these three kinds of elimination that are discernable in this lifetime, realisable in the here and now, intriguing, personally significant, to be realised by the wise for themselves. What three?
Tisso imā gāmaṇi sandiṭṭhikā nijjarā akālikā ehipassikā opanayikā paccattaṃ veditabbā viññūhi. Katamā tisso:

Someone is attached, and because of attachment he is intent upon his own harm, upon the harm of others, upon the harm of both.
Yaṃ ratto rāgādhikaraṇaṃ attavyābādhāyapi ceteti paravyābādhāyapi ceteti ubhayavyābādhāyapi ceteti

When attachment is abandoned, he is not intent upon his own harm, or the harm of others, or the harm of both.
rāge pahīne neva attavyābādhāyapi ceteti na paravyābādhāyapi ceteti na ubhayavyābādhāyapi ceteti.

Its elimination is discernable in this lifetime, realisable in the here and now, intriguing, personally significant, to be realised by the wise for themselves.
Sandiṭṭhikā nijjarā akālikā ehipassikā opanayikā paccattaṃ veditabbā viññūhi (S.4.339).

Illustration: attūpanāyikaṃ, with reference to himself

If a bhikkhu, though not recalling it, should claim with reference to himself a superhuman attainment of knowledge and vision that is worthy of the Noble Ones, saying “Thus I know; thus I see.”..
Yo pana bhikkhu anabhijānaṃ uttarimanussadhammaṃ attūpanāyikaṃ alamariyañāṇadassanaṃ samudācareyya Iti jānāmi iti passāmī ti… (Vin.3.91).

Comment:

The rule continues in a way that is not significant, as follows:

.’.. then, whether or not he is later interrogated about it, fallen and seeking purification, he says “Friends, though not knowing, I said ‘I know’; though not seeing, I said ‘I see.’ I boasted vainly and falsely”; unless it was from over-estimation, he is pārājika, no longer in communion.
tato aparena samayena samanuggāhiyamāno vā asamanuggāhiyamāno vā āpanno visuddhāpekkho evaṃ vadeyya Ajānam evaṃ āvuso avacaṃ jānāmi’; apassaṃ passāmi.’ Tucchaṃ musā vilapin ti. Aññatra adhimānā ayampi pārājiko hoti asaṃvāso.

Illustration: attūpanāyikaṃ, involving comparison with oneself

I will expound for your benefit a systematic exposition of the teaching that involves a comparison with oneself.
Attūpanāyikaṃ vo gahapatayo dhammapariyāyaṃ desissāmī ti

What is the systematic exposition of the teaching that involves a comparison with oneself?
Katamo ca gahapatayo attūpanāyiko dhammapariyāyo:

In this regard, householders, a noble disciple reflects thus: ‘I am one who wishes to live, who does not wish to die; I desire happiness and loathe pain. Since I am one who wishes to live… and loathe pain, if someone were to take my life, that would not be agreeable and pleasing to me.
idha gahapatayo ariyasāvako iti paṭisañcikkhati ahaṃ khosmi jīvitukāmo amaritukāmo sukhakāmo dukkhapaṭikkūlo. Yo kho maṃ jīvitukāmaṃ amaritukāmaṃ sukhakāmaṃ dukkhapaṭikkūlaṃ jīvitā voropeyya na me taṃ assa piyaṃ manāpaṃ

Now if I were to take the life of another―of one who wishes to live, who does not wish to die, who desires happiness and loathes pain―that would not be agreeable and pleasing to the other either. What is disagreeable and displeasing to me is disagreeable and displeasing to the other too. How can I inflict upon another what is disagreeable and displeasing to me?’
ahañceva kho pana paraṃ jīvitukāmaṃ. Sukhakāmaṃ dukkhapaṭikkūlaṃ jīvitā voropeyya parassapi taṃ assa appiyaṃ amanāpaṃ. Yo kho myāyaṃ dhammo appiyo amanāpo. Parassapeso dhammo appiyo amanāpo. Yo kho myāyaṃ dhammo appiyo amanāpo kathāhaṃ paraṃ tena saṃyojeyyanti

In reflecting thus, he himself abstains from killing, exhorts others to abstain from killing, and speaks in praise of abstaining from killing.
So iti paṭisaṅkhāya attanā ca pāṇātipātā paṭivirato hoti. Parañca pāṇātipātā veramaṇiyā samādapeti. Pāṇātipātā veramaṇiyā ca vaṇṇaṃ bhāsati (S.5.354).