Upadduta; Upaddava

Renderings

upadduta: ravaged (by old age and death)

upadduta: attacked

upadduta: undone

upadduta: oppressed

upaddava: undoing

upaddava: misfortune

Introduction

Parenthesising upadduta: ravaged (by old age and death)

In the following quote we parenthesise ‘(by old age and death)’:

• The mountains, oceans, rivers, and the earth; the four directions, the intermediate points, the nadir, and the zenith, are all unlasting. The three planes of existence are ravaged (by old age and death). Where having gone, mind, will you delight happily?
Nagā samuddā saritā vasundharā disā catasso vidisā adho divā
Sabbe aniccā tibhavā upaddutā kuhiṃ gato citta sukhaṃ ramissasi
(Ven. Tāḷapuṭa, Th.v.1133).

We say ‘ravaged (by old age and death)’ based on a similar word combination in Th.v.1093 by the same Tāḷapuṭa, who said there that the body is unlasting and ravaged by old age and death (maccujarāyupaddutaṃ):

• When will I dwell alone in the woods, free of fear, seeing (according to reality) that this (wretched human) body is unlasting, a seat of punishment and illness, ravaged by old age and death? When, oh when, will it be?
Kadā aniccaṃ vadharoganīḷaṃ kāyaṃ imaṃ maccujarāyupaddutaṃ
Vipassamāno vītabhayo vihassaṃ eko vane taṃ nu kadā bhavissati
(Ven. Tāḷapuṭa, Th.v.1093).

Parenthesising upadduta: ravaged (by old age and death)

In the following quote we parenthesise ‘(by old age and death)’:

• All is ravaged (by old age and death). What is the all that is ravaged (by old age and death)?
☸ Sabbaṃ bhikkhave upaddutaṃ. Kiñca bhikkhave sabbaṃ upaddutaṃ

… The visual sense is ravaged, visible objects are ravaged, the visual sphere of sensation is ravaged, visual sensation is ravaged, whatever sense impression that arises due to visual sensation―whether pleasant, unpleasant, or neutral―that too is ravaged (by old age and death).
cakkhuṃ bhikkhave upaddutaṃ rūpā upaddutā cakkhuviññāṇaṃ upaddutaṃ cakkhusamphasso upadduto yampidaṃ cakkhusamphassapaccayā uppajjati vedayitaṃ sukhaṃ vā dukkhaṃ vā adukkhamasukhaṃ vā tampi upaddutaṃ (S.4.28-9).

We parenthesise like this for two reasons:

1) Firstly, this sutta is placed in the scriptures in a sequence of similar suttas, as follows:

• All is subject to birth… subject to old age… subject to illness… subject to death… productive of grief… All is ravaged… All is afflicted.
Sabbaṃ bhikkhave… jātidhammaṃ… jarādhammaṃ… vyādhidhammaṃ… maraṇadhammaṃ… sokadhammaṃ… upaddutaṃ… upassaṭṭhaṃ (S.4.26-9).

2) Secondly, it is comparable to the Addabhūta Sutta which says:

• All is conquered. What is the all that is conquered?
☸ Sabbaṃ bhikkhave addhabhūtaṃ. Kiñca bhikkhave sabbaṃ addhabhūtaṃ?

… The visual sense is conquered, visible objects are conquered, etc. .
Cakkhuṃ bhikkhave addhabhūtaṃ rūpā addhabhūtā

… Conquered by what? Conquered by birth, old age, and death; by grief, lamentation, physical pain, psychological pain, and vexation, I declare.
Kena addhabhūtaṃ: addhabhūtaṃ jātiyā jarāmaraṇena sokehi paridevehi dukkhehi domanassehi upāyāsehi addhabhūtanti vadāmi (S.4.21).

We refrain from saying ‘All is ravaged (by birth, old age, and death; by grief, lamentation, physical pain, psychological pain, and vexation)’ for three reasons:

1) Most of the elements are not ravaged by physical pain.

2) To say that ‘phenomena are ravaged by birth’ is incongruous.

3) It is consonant with Tāḷapuṭa’s maccujarāyupaddutaṃ (Th.v.1093).

Parenthesising upadduta: ravaged (by death)

In the following quote we parenthesise ‘(by death)’:

• Then Yasa, having awoken sooner than usual saw his retinue asleep: one with a lute in her arm, one with a tabor under her chin, one with a drum under her arm, one with dishevelled hair, one who was dribbling, and others who were muttering. One would think it was a charnel ground before one’s eyes. Seeing this, the danger (of sensuous pleasure) became apparent to him. His mind was established in disillusionment (with sensuous pleasure).
Atha kho yaso kulaputto paṭigacceva pabujjhitvā addasa sakaṃ parijanaṃ supantaṃ. Aññissā kacche vīṇaṃ. Aññissā kaṇṭhe mudiṅgaṃ. Aññissā kacche ālambaraṃ. Aññaṃ vikkesikaṃ aññaṃ vikkhelikaṃ. Aññā vippalapantiyo. Hatthappattaṃ susānaṃ maññe. Disvānassa ādīnavo pāturahosi. Nibbidāya cittaṃ saṇṭhāsi.

Then Yasa, the noble young man, uttered the solemn reflection: ‘Alas, (all) is ravaged (by death). Alas, (all) is afflicted (by death).’
☸ Atha kho yaso kulaputto udānaṃ udānesi upaddutaṃ vata bho upassaṭṭhaṃ vata bho ti (Vin.1.15).

Comment:

We say ‘(all) is ravaged (by death)’ for the following reasons:

1) ‘All’ is consonant with the association elsewhere of upaddutaṃ and upassaṭṭhaṃ and sabbaṃ:

• All is ravaged… All is afflicted.
Sabbaṃ bhikkhave… upaddutaṃ… upassaṭṭhaṃ (S.4.29).

2) ‘Death’ is consonant with the charnel ground.

3) ‘Death’ is consonant with Tāḷapuṭa’s maccujarāyupaddutaṃ (Th.v.1093).

Illustrations: upadduta

Illustration: upaddutaṃ, attacked

The family which supported Venerable Pilindivaccha was attacked by thieves, and two children were kidnapped.
āyasmato pilindivacchassa upaṭṭhākakulaṃ corehi upaddutaṃ hoti. Dve ca dārakā nītā honti (Vin.3.67).

Illustration: upaddutā, oppressed

People were oppressed by the begging, oppressed by the hinting,
☸ Manussā upaddutā yācanāya upaddutā viññattiyā

… So when they saw bhikkhus they were perturbed, then alarmed, and then ran away… and when they saw cows they ran away, imagining them to be bhikkhus (Vin.3.144).

Illustration: upaddutā, oppressed

The resident bhikkhus were oppressed by having to assign abodes for the incoming bhikkhus who arrived.
āvāsikā bhikkhū upaddutā honti āgantukagamikānaṃ bhikkhūnaṃ senāsanaṃ paññāpentā (Vin.2.170).

Illustration: upaddutā, oppressed

Enough, friends, do not weep and wail! We are well rid of that Great Ascetic.
alaṃ āvuso mā sovittha mā paridevittha. Sumuttā mayaṃ tena mahāsamaṇena.

We were always oppressed by him saying: ‘This is allowable for you. This is not allowable’
Upaddutā ca homa idaṃ vo kappati idaṃ vo na kappatī ti.

Now we can do what we like, and not do what we don’t like!’
☸ Idāni pana mayaṃ yaṃ icchissāma taṃ karissāma yaṃ na icchissāma na taṃ karissāmā ti (D.2.162).

Illustrations: upaddava

Illustration: anupaddave, undestroyed

Just as a tree that is felled will grow back if its roots are undestroyed and uninjured….
Yathā pi mūle anupaddave daḷhe chinno pi rukkho punareva rūhati (Dh.v.338).

Illustration: upaddavo, undoing

Being visited by brahmans and householders from town and country, he becomes infatuated, falls in love, succumbs to greed, and reverts to luxury.
So anvāvaṭṭantesu brāhmaṇagahapatikesu negamesu ceva jānapadesu ca mucchati nikāyamati gedhaṃ āpajjati āvaṭṭati bāhullāya.

This is called the teacher who is undone through the undoing of teachers.
Ayaṃ vuccatānanda upaddavo ācariyo ācariyūpaddavena.

He has been struck down by unvirtuous, spiritually unwholesome factors that are defiling, and which lead to renewed states of individual existence, suffering, unpleasant karmic consequences, and future birth, old age, and death.
avadhiṃsu naṃ pāpakā akusalā dhammā saṅkilesikā ponobhavikā sadarā dukkhavipākā āyatiṃ jātijarāmaraṇiyā

In this way a teacher’s undoing comes to be.
☸ evaṃ kho ānanda ācariyūpaddavo hoti
(M.3.116).

Illustration: undone, upaddutā; undoing, upaddavena

If, Kassapa, one speaking rightly could say: ‘Those living the religious life have been undone by the undoing of those who live the religious life; those living the religious life have been crushed by the crushing of those who live the religious life’: it is of the present time that one could rightly say it.
☸ Yaṃ hi taṃ kassapa sammāvadamāno vadeyya upaddutā brahmacārī brahmacārūpaddavena abhibhavanā brahmacārī brahmacārābhibhavanenā ti. etarahi hi taṃ kassapa sammāvadanto vadeyya upaddutā brahmacārī brahmacārupaddavena abhibhavanā brahmacārī brahmacārābhibhavanenā ti (S.2.210).

Illustration: upaddavo, misfortune

‘For me, this (wretched sensuous pleasure) is an affliction, a carbuncle, a misfortune, an illness, a (piercing) arrow, a danger.’ (Considering thus), seeing this danger in the varieties ofsensuous pleasure, one should live the religious life as solitarily as a rhinoceros horn.
Ītī ca gaṇḍo ca upaddavo ca rogo ca sallañca bhayañca metaṃ
Etaṃ bhayaṃ kāmaguṇesu disvā eko care khaggavisāṇakappo
(Sn.v.51).

Illustration: saupaddavā, misfortune

Now, bhante, it is not proper or fitting. That quarter which should be without fear, affliction, and misfortune is the very quarter which is full of fear, affliction, and misfortune.
☸ idaṃ bhante nacchannaṃ nappatirūpaṃ. Yāyaṃ bhante disā abhayā anītikā anupaddavā sāyaṃ disā sabhayā saītikā saupaddavā.

Where there was calm, now there is a gale. It seems the very water is blazing. I have been raped by Master Dabba the Mallian.
Yato nivātaṃ tato pavātaṃ. Udakaṃ maññe ādittaṃ. Ayyenamhi dabbena mallaputtena dūsitā ti (Vin.2.79).